Abstract

Under 980 nm excitation, upconversion emissions originating from F32,3H36 and H34H36 transitions of Tm3+ ion in LiNbO3 single crystal were studied as a function of temperature in the range of 323–773 K. The F32,3 and H34 levels of Tm3+ ion are confirmed to be thermally coupled levels. By using fluorescence intensity ratio technique, the sensitivity of optical temperature sensor achieved in our work is higher than other reported temperature sensors. Additionally, this optical temperature sensor is well suited to high operating temperature. Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped LiNbO3 is a promising candidate for fabricating excellent optical temperature sensors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

W. Xu, H. Zhao, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 178, 520 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Xing, Y. L. Xu, R. Wang, W. Xu, S. Gu, and X. H. Wu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 577, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

B. Dong, B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Liu, Z. P. Li, and Z. Q. Feng, Adv. Mater. 24, 1987 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Boruc, M. Kaczkan, B. Fetlinski, S. Turczynski, and M. Malinowski, Opt. Lett. 37, 5214 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, Z. L. Jiang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Opt. Express 20, 18127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Q. Feng, Y. S. Li, and B. Dong, Sens. Actuators B 159, 8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. F. León-Luis, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. Lalla, and V. Lavín, Sens. Actuators B 158, 208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

V. K. Rai, Appl. Phys. B 88, 297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

V. K. Rai, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, Sens. Actuators A 128, 14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, and G. W. Baxter, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4743 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

A. S. Barker and R. Loudon, Phys. Rev. 158, 433 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Barker, A. S.

A. S. Barker and R. Loudon, Phys. Rev. 158, 433 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, and G. W. Baxter, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4743 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boruc, Z.

Cao, B. S.

B. Dong, B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Liu, Z. P. Li, and Z. Q. Feng, Adv. Mater. 24, 1987 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Q. Feng, Y. S. Li, and B. Dong, Sens. Actuators B 159, 8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W. W.

W. Xu, H. Zhao, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 178, 520 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, Z. L. Jiang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Opt. Express 20, 18127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S. F.

S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, and G. W. Baxter, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4743 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

B. Dong, B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Liu, Z. P. Li, and Z. Q. Feng, Adv. Mater. 24, 1987 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Q. Feng, Y. S. Li, and B. Dong, Sens. Actuators B 159, 8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. Q.

B. Dong, B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Liu, Z. P. Li, and Z. Q. Feng, Adv. Mater. 24, 1987 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Q. Feng, Y. S. Li, and B. Dong, Sens. Actuators B 159, 8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fetlinski, B.

Gao, X. Y.

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, Z. L. Jiang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Opt. Express 20, 18127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S.

L. L. Xing, Y. L. Xu, R. Wang, W. Xu, S. Gu, and X. H. Wu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 577, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

He, Y. Y.

B. Dong, B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Liu, Z. P. Li, and Z. Q. Feng, Adv. Mater. 24, 1987 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Q. Feng, Y. S. Li, and B. Dong, Sens. Actuators B 159, 8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. L.

Kaczkan, M.

Lalla, E.

S. F. León-Luis, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. Lalla, and V. Lavín, Sens. Actuators B 158, 208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lavín, V.

S. F. León-Luis, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. Lalla, and V. Lavín, Sens. Actuators B 158, 208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

León-Luis, S. F.

S. F. León-Luis, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. Lalla, and V. Lavín, Sens. Actuators B 158, 208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. S.

B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Q. Feng, Y. S. Li, and B. Dong, Sens. Actuators B 159, 8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. P.

B. Dong, B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Liu, Z. P. Li, and Z. Q. Feng, Adv. Mater. 24, 1987 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

B. Dong, B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Liu, Z. P. Li, and Z. Q. Feng, Adv. Mater. 24, 1987 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

A. S. Barker and R. Loudon, Phys. Rev. 158, 433 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, M.

Rai, D. K.

V. K. Rai, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, Sens. Actuators A 128, 14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rai, S. B.

V. K. Rai, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, Sens. Actuators A 128, 14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rai, V. K.

V. K. Rai, Appl. Phys. B 88, 297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rai, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, Sens. Actuators A 128, 14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.

S. F. León-Luis, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. Lalla, and V. Lavín, Sens. Actuators B 158, 208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Turczynski, S.

Wade, S. A.

S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, and G. W. Baxter, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4743 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

L. L. Xing, Y. L. Xu, R. Wang, W. Xu, S. Gu, and X. H. Wu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 577, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. H.

L. L. Xing, Y. L. Xu, R. Wang, W. Xu, S. Gu, and X. H. Wu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 577, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xing, L. L.

L. L. Xing, Y. L. Xu, R. Wang, W. Xu, S. Gu, and X. H. Wu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 577, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

W. Xu, H. Zhao, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 178, 520 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Xing, Y. L. Xu, R. Wang, W. Xu, S. Gu, and X. H. Wu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 577, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, Z. L. Jiang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Opt. Express 20, 18127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. L.

L. L. Xing, Y. L. Xu, R. Wang, W. Xu, S. Gu, and X. H. Wu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 577, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

W. Xu, H. Zhao, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 178, 520 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, Z. L. Jiang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Opt. Express 20, 18127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

W. Xu, H. Zhao, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 178, 520 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L. J.

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. Dong, B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Liu, Z. P. Li, and Z. Q. Feng, Adv. Mater. 24, 1987 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. K. Rai, Appl. Phys. B 88, 297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, P. Wang, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. L. Xing, Y. L. Xu, R. Wang, W. Xu, S. Gu, and X. H. Wu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 577, 53 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, and G. W. Baxter, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4743 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. S. Barker and R. Loudon, Phys. Rev. 158, 433 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

V. K. Rai, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, Sens. Actuators A 128, 14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (4)

W. Xu, H. Zhao, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 178, 520 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. F. León-Luis, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, E. Lalla, and V. Lavín, Sens. Actuators B 158, 208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Y. Gao, L. J. Zheng, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, Sens. Actuators B 173, 250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Cao, Y. Y. He, Z. Q. Feng, Y. S. Li, and B. Dong, Sens. Actuators B 159, 8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Upconversion emission spectra of Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped LiNbO3 single crystal at different temperatures under 980 nm excitation (1/50 represents 1/50 of actual measured emission intensities for 800 nm). The inset shows the absorption spectrum of Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped LiNbO3 single crystal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Energy level diagrams of Tm3+ and Yb3+ ions as well as upconversion mechanism for generating 700 nm and 800 nm upconversion emissions under 980 nm excitation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FIR of upconversion emissions between 700 and 800 nm as a function of temperature in the range of 323–773 K.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relative sensitivity as a function of temperature in the range of 323–773 K.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Values of Sensitivity for RE Ions Doped Different Host Materials with Temperature Ranges as well as the Involved Transitions

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FIR=IiIj=Aexp(ΔEkBT)+B,
S=1FIR(dFIRdT)=ΔEkBT2.
SR=dFIRdT=FIR(ΔEkBT2).

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