Abstract

The application of asymmetric Schottky barrier and electrode area in an MgZnO metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector has been investigated by a physical-based numerical model in which the electron mobility is obtained by an ensemble Monte Carlo simulation combined with first principle calculations using the density functional theory. Compared with the experimental data of symmetric and asymmetric MSM structures based on ZnO substrate, the validity of this model is verified. The asymmetric Schottky barrier and electrode area devices exhibit reductions of 20 times and 1.3 times on dark current, respectively, without apparent photocurrent scarification. The plots of photo-to-dark current ratio (PDR) indicate that the asymmetric MgZnO MSM structure has better dark current characteristic than that of the symmetric one.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (3)

Z. Hu, Z. Li, L. Zhu, F. Liu, Y. Lv, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, Opt. Lett. 37, 3072 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, X. Ji, F. Yan, R. Zhang, Y. Zheng, L. Li, and J. Zhou, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2086 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, J. Huang, Q. Hu, D. Chen, and K. Ding, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Han, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Zheng, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, M. Jiang, S. Wang, and D. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 242105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Liang, Z. Mei, Q. Zhang, L. Gu, S. Liang, Y. Hou, D. Ye, C. Gu, R. Yu, and X. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and K. Zhang, Opt. Eng. 50, 113801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and B. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park and H.-Y. Yu, Opt. Lett. 36, 1182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. Müller, G. Konstantinidis, M. Dragoman, D. Neculoiu, A. Kostopoulos, M. Androulidaki, M. Kayambaki, and D. Vasilache, Appl. Opt. 47, 1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K.-T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 10339 (2008).

2007 (2)

K. Liu, D. Shen, C. Shan, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, Y. Lu, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, W. Chang, Y. Chen, C. Kung, C. Hu, and P. Chen, Thin Solid Films 515, 3837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2003 (1)

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Choopun, R. Vispute, W. Yang, R. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett 80, 1529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. Auret, S. Goodman, M. Hayes, M. Legodi, H. Van Laarhoven, and D. C. Look, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3074 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. F. Salem, A. W. Smith, and K. F. Brennan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 1112 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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J. B. D. Soole and H. Schumacher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 737 (1991).
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Ang, K.-W.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K.-T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 10339 (2008).

Arend, M.

Auret, F.

F. Auret, S. Goodman, M. Hayes, M. Legodi, H. Van Laarhoven, and D. C. Look, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3074 (2001).
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A. F. Salem, A. W. Smith, and K. F. Brennan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 1112 (1994).
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J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996).
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Chang, W.

J. Hwang, W. Chang, Y. Chen, C. Kung, C. Hu, and P. Chen, Thin Solid Films 515, 3837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, J. Huang, Q. Hu, D. Chen, and K. Ding, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, X. Ji, F. Yan, R. Zhang, Y. Zheng, L. Li, and J. Zhou, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2086 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

J. Hwang, W. Chang, Y. Chen, C. Kung, C. Hu, and P. Chen, Thin Solid Films 515, 3837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and B. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, W. Chang, Y. Chen, C. Kung, C. Hu, and P. Chen, Thin Solid Films 515, 3837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choopun, S.

S. Choopun, R. Vispute, W. Yang, R. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett 80, 1529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chua, K.-T.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K.-T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 10339 (2008).

Chui, C. O.

A. K. Okyay, C. O. Chui, and K. C. Saraswat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crouse, D.

Ding, K.

P. Wang, Q. Zhen, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, L. Guo, K. Ding, and F. Huang, Opt. Express 21, 18387 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, J. Huang, Q. Hu, D. Chen, and K. Ding, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dragoman, M.

Du, X.

H. Liang, Z. Mei, Q. Zhang, L. Gu, S. Liang, Y. Hou, D. Ye, C. Gu, R. Yu, and X. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ernzerhof, M.

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

K. Liu, D. Shen, C. Shan, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, Y. Lu, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, S.

F. Auret, S. Goodman, M. Hayes, M. Legodi, H. Van Laarhoven, and D. C. Look, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3074 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

H. Liang, Z. Mei, Q. Zhang, L. Gu, S. Liang, Y. Hou, D. Ye, C. Gu, R. Yu, and X. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gu, L.

H. Liang, Z. Mei, Q. Zhang, L. Gu, S. Liang, Y. Hou, D. Ye, C. Gu, R. Yu, and X. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

Han, S.

S. Han, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Zheng, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, M. Jiang, S. Wang, and D. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 242105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, M.

F. Auret, S. Goodman, M. Hayes, M. Legodi, H. Van Laarhoven, and D. C. Look, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3074 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Y.

H. Liang, Z. Mei, Q. Zhang, L. Gu, S. Liang, Y. Hou, D. Ye, C. Gu, R. Yu, and X. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

J. Hwang, W. Chang, Y. Chen, C. Kung, C. Hu, and P. Chen, Thin Solid Films 515, 3837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, J. Huang, Q. Hu, D. Chen, and K. Ding, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

Huang, F.

P. Wang, Q. Zhen, Q. Tang, Y. Yang, L. Guo, K. Ding, and F. Huang, Opt. Express 21, 18387 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, J. Huang, Q. Hu, D. Chen, and K. Ding, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, J. Huang, Q. Hu, D. Chen, and K. Ding, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 1033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, W. Chang, Y. Chen, C. Kung, C. Hu, and P. Chen, Thin Solid Films 515, 3837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ji, X.

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, X. Ji, F. Yan, R. Zhang, Y. Zheng, L. Li, and J. Zhou, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2086 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and B. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

S. Han, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Zheng, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, M. Jiang, S. Wang, and D. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 242105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kayambaki, M.

Keshavareddy, P.

Konstantinidis, G.

Kostopoulos, A.

Kung, C.

J. Hwang, W. Chang, Y. Chen, C. Kung, C. Hu, and P. Chen, Thin Solid Films 515, 3837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.-L.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K.-T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 10339 (2008).

Legodi, M.

F. Auret, S. Goodman, M. Hayes, M. Legodi, H. Van Laarhoven, and D. C. Look, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3074 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and B. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and K. Zhang, Opt. Eng. 50, 113801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, X. Ji, F. Yan, R. Zhang, Y. Zheng, L. Li, and J. Zhou, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2086 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Hu, Z. Li, L. Zhu, F. Liu, Y. Lv, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, Opt. Lett. 37, 3072 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and B. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

H. Liang, Z. Mei, Q. Zhang, L. Gu, S. Liang, Y. Hou, D. Ye, C. Gu, R. Yu, and X. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, S.

H. Liang, Z. Mei, Q. Zhang, L. Gu, S. Liang, Y. Hou, D. Ye, C. Gu, R. Yu, and X. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, K.

K. Liu, D. Shen, C. Shan, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, Y. Lu, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

G. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and K. Zhang, Opt. Eng. 50, 113801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K.-T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 10339 (2008).

Look, D. C.

F. Auret, S. Goodman, M. Hayes, M. Legodi, H. Van Laarhoven, and D. C. Look, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3074 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, X. Ji, F. Yan, R. Zhang, Y. Zheng, L. Li, and J. Zhou, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2086 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

K. Liu, D. Shen, C. Shan, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, Y. Lu, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Y.

Marshall, A.

McIntyre, P. C.

Mei, Z.

H. Liang, Z. Mei, Q. Zhang, L. Gu, S. Liang, Y. Hou, D. Ye, C. Gu, R. Yu, and X. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miao, G.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and B. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Müller, A.

Nayfeh, A. M.

Neculoiu, D.

Okyay, A. K.

A. K. Okyay, C. O. Chui, and K. C. Saraswat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, Opt. Lett. 31, 2565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

Perdew, J. P.

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salem, A. F.

A. F. Salem, A. W. Smith, and K. F. Brennan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 1112 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, Opt. Lett. 31, 2565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Okyay, C. O. Chui, and K. C. Saraswat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, H.

J. B. D. Soole and H. Schumacher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Selberherr, S.

S. Selberherr, Analysis and Simulation of Semiconductor Devices (Springer-Verlag, 1984).

Shan, C.

K. Liu, D. Shen, C. Shan, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, Y. Lu, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

S. Choopun, R. Vispute, W. Yang, R. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett 80, 1529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, B.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and B. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

K. Liu, D. Shen, C. Shan, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, Y. Lu, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

S. Choopun, R. Vispute, W. Yang, R. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett 80, 1529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. W.

A. F. Salem, A. W. Smith, and K. F. Brennan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 1112 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and B. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soole, J. B. D.

J. B. D. Soole and H. Schumacher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

D. Li, X. Sun, H. Song, Z. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Miao, and B. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Q.

Van Laarhoven, H.

F. Auret, S. Goodman, M. Hayes, M. Legodi, H. Van Laarhoven, and D. C. Look, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3074 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vasilache, D.

Venkatesan, T.

S. Choopun, R. Vispute, W. Yang, R. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett 80, 1529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vispute, R.

S. Choopun, R. Vispute, W. Yang, R. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett 80, 1529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

S. Han, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Zheng, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, M. Jiang, S. Wang, and D. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 242105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Wang, S.

S. Han, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Zheng, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, M. Jiang, S. Wang, and D. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 242105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Xie, F.

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, X. Ji, F. Yan, R. Zhang, Y. Zheng, L. Li, and J. Zhou, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2086 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

F. Xie, H. Lu, D. Chen, X. Ji, F. Yan, R. Zhang, Y. Zheng, L. Li, and J. Zhou, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2086 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

S. Choopun, R. Vispute, W. Yang, R. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett 80, 1529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yao, B.

K. Liu, D. Shen, C. Shan, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, Y. Lu, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, D.

H. Liang, Z. Mei, Q. Zhang, L. Gu, S. Liang, Y. Hou, D. Ye, C. Gu, R. Yu, and X. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yonehara, T.

Yu, H.-Y.

Yu, M.-B.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K.-T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 10339 (2008).

Yu, R.

H. Liang, Z. Mei, Q. Zhang, L. Gu, S. Liang, Y. Hou, D. Ye, C. Gu, R. Yu, and X. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Z.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

S. Han, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Zheng, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, M. Jiang, S. Wang, and D. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 242105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and K. Zhang, Opt. Eng. 50, 113801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, D. Shen, C. Shan, J. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Zhao, Y. Lu, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

G. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and K. Zhang, Opt. Eng. 50, 113801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

MSM schematic diagrams with (a) symmetric structure; (b) asymmetric Schottky barrier structure; (c) asymmetric electrode area structure. C1 is the contact 1; C2 is the contact 2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Electron mobility for Mg0.5Zn0.5O is shown as a function of electric field.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

IV characteristics of symmetric and asymmetric MgZnO MSM PDs under photo and dark environments. The electrode fingers are 4 μm wide with 4 μm spacing. The wavelength of the light is 260 nm, and the incident optical power is 0.4 μW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dark currents for fixed total contact area PDs with varying electrode asymmetry. The electrode fingers are 4 μm spacing.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

PDR for different asymmetric electrode area devices. The wavelength of the light is 260 nm and the incident optical power is 0.4 μW.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. PDR for all Structures at an Applied Voltage of 5 V

Equations (1)

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Jdark=An*T2exp(qΦBn1KT)+Ap*T2exp(qΦBp2KT),

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