Abstract

In this Letter, we report a technique to etch giant aspect ratio nanostructures in lithium niobate. An 8 μm long Bragg grating on a Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide was fabricated by combining optical-grade dicing and focused ion beam milling. The reflectivity was evaluated using an optical coherence tomography system: it is measured to be 53% for the TM wave and 47% for the TE wave. We study by 2D-FDTD the modeled behavior of the electromagnetic field when an angle exists between two consecutive sidewalls of the grating in order to understand the difference between ideal Bragg grating and experimental samples. These simulations allow us to optimize the parameters in order to increase the reflection of the grating up to 80%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (3)

D. N. Urquidez, S. Stepanov, H. Soto Ortiz, N. Toguzov, I. Ilichev, and A. Shamray, Appl. Phys. B 106, 51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Ulliac, A. Lecestre, B. Guichardaz, J. Dahdah, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, Microelectron. Eng. 97, 185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Horn, S. Kroesen, J. Herrmann, J. Imbrock, and C. Denz, Opt. Express 20, 26922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

N. Courjal, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, P. Seviallano, B. Guichardaz, and F. Baida, Opt. Express 19, 23008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J.-Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H.-H. Lu, and M.-P. Bernal, J. Phys. D 44, 305101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Dell’Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. Lacour, N. Courjal, M.-P. Bernal, A. Sabac, C. Bainier, and M. Spajer, Opt. Mater. 27, 1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B.-E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Hukriede, D. Kip, and E. Kratzig, J. Opt. A 2, 481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Feng, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, Electron. Lett. 35, 1636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

I. P. Kaminov, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F.

Baida, F. I.

G. Ulliac, A. Lecestre, B. Guichardaz, J. Dahdah, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, Microelectron. Eng. 97, 185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bainier, C.

F. Lacour, N. Courjal, M.-P. Bernal, A. Sabac, C. Bainier, and M. Spajer, Opt. Mater. 27, 1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benkelfat, B.-E.

B.-E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, M.-P.

G. Ulliac, A. Lecestre, B. Guichardaz, J. Dahdah, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, Microelectron. Eng. 97, 185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J.-Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H.-H. Lu, and M.-P. Bernal, J. Phys. D 44, 305101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Burr, S. Diziain, and M.-P. Bernal, Opt. Express 16, 6302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacour, N. Courjal, M.-P. Bernal, A. Sabac, C. Bainier, and M. Spajer, Opt. Mater. 27, 1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burr, G. W.

Courjal, N.

G. Ulliac, A. Lecestre, B. Guichardaz, J. Dahdah, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, Microelectron. Eng. 97, 185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Courjal, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, P. Seviallano, B. Guichardaz, and F. Baida, Opt. Express 19, 23008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J.-Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H.-H. Lu, and M.-P. Bernal, J. Phys. D 44, 305101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacour, N. Courjal, M.-P. Bernal, A. Sabac, C. Bainier, and M. Spajer, Opt. Mater. 27, 1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dahdah, J.

G. Ulliac, A. Lecestre, B. Guichardaz, J. Dahdah, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, Microelectron. Eng. 97, 185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Courjal, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, P. Seviallano, B. Guichardaz, and F. Baida, Opt. Express 19, 23008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Innocenti, R.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Dell’Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denz, C.

Diziain, S.

Feng, H.

H. Feng, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, Electron. Lett. 35, 1636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferrière, R.

B.-E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Dell’Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guichardaz, B.

G. Ulliac, A. Lecestre, B. Guichardaz, J. Dahdah, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, Microelectron. Eng. 97, 185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Courjal, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, P. Seviallano, B. Guichardaz, and F. Baida, Opt. Express 19, 23008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J.-Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H.-H. Lu, and M.-P. Bernal, J. Phys. D 44, 305101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Dell’Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

Horn, W.

Hu, H.

Huang, X.

Hukriede, J.

J. Hukriede, D. Kip, and E. Kratzig, J. Opt. A 2, 481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ilichev, I.

D. N. Urquidez, S. Stepanov, H. Soto Ortiz, N. Toguzov, I. Ilichev, and A. Shamray, Appl. Phys. B 106, 51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Imbrock, J.

Kaminov, I. P.

I. P. Kaminov, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

J. Hukriede, D. Kip, and E. Kratzig, J. Opt. A 2, 481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kratzig, E.

J. Hukriede, D. Kip, and E. Kratzig, J. Opt. A 2, 481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kroesen, S.

Lacour, F.

F. Lacour, N. Courjal, M.-P. Bernal, A. Sabac, C. Bainier, and M. Spajer, Opt. Mater. 27, 1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lecestre, A.

G. Ulliac, A. Lecestre, B. Guichardaz, J. Dahdah, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, Microelectron. Eng. 97, 185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.-H.

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J.-Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H.-H. Lu, and M.-P. Bernal, J. Phys. D 44, 305101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mollier, P.

B.-E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poberaj, G.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Dell’Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

H. Feng, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, Electron. Lett. 35, 1636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

I. P. Kaminov, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rao Vanga, R.

Rauch, J.-Y.

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J.-Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H.-H. Lu, and M.-P. Bernal, J. Phys. D 44, 305101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rezzonico, D.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Dell’Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

Sabac, A.

F. Lacour, N. Courjal, M.-P. Bernal, A. Sabac, C. Bainier, and M. Spajer, Opt. Mater. 27, 1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sadani, B.

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J.-Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H.-H. Lu, and M.-P. Bernal, J. Phys. D 44, 305101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R. V.

I. P. Kaminov, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Seviallano, P.

Shamray, A.

D. N. Urquidez, S. Stepanov, H. Soto Ortiz, N. Toguzov, I. Ilichev, and A. Shamray, Appl. Phys. B 106, 51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

Soto Ortiz, H.

D. N. Urquidez, S. Stepanov, H. Soto Ortiz, N. Toguzov, I. Ilichev, and A. Shamray, Appl. Phys. B 106, 51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

F. Lacour, N. Courjal, M.-P. Bernal, A. Sabac, C. Bainier, and M. Spajer, Opt. Mater. 27, 1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S.

D. N. Urquidez, S. Stepanov, H. Soto Ortiz, N. Toguzov, I. Ilichev, and A. Shamray, Appl. Phys. B 106, 51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tavlykaev, R. F.

H. Feng, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, Electron. Lett. 35, 1636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toguzov, N.

D. N. Urquidez, S. Stepanov, H. Soto Ortiz, N. Toguzov, I. Ilichev, and A. Shamray, Appl. Phys. B 106, 51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Turner, E. H.

I. P. Kaminov, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ulliac, G.

G. Ulliac, A. Lecestre, B. Guichardaz, J. Dahdah, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, Microelectron. Eng. 97, 185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J.-Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H.-H. Lu, and M.-P. Bernal, J. Phys. D 44, 305101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Courjal, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, P. Seviallano, B. Guichardaz, and F. Baida, Opt. Express 19, 23008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Urquidez, D. N.

D. N. Urquidez, S. Stepanov, H. Soto Ortiz, N. Toguzov, I. Ilichev, and A. Shamray, Appl. Phys. B 106, 51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wacogne, B.

B.-E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Zhou, Z.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. N. Urquidez, S. Stepanov, H. Soto Ortiz, N. Toguzov, I. Ilichev, and A. Shamray, Appl. Phys. B 106, 51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. P. Kaminov, V. Ramaswamy, R. V. Schmidt, and E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 622 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Feng, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, Electron. Lett. 35, 1636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B.-E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

J. Hukriede, D. Kip, and E. Kratzig, J. Opt. A 2, 481 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

N. Courjal, B. Guichardaz, G. Ulliac, J.-Y. Rauch, B. Sadani, H.-H. Lu, and M.-P. Bernal, J. Phys. D 44, 305101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

G. Ulliac, A. Lecestre, B. Guichardaz, J. Dahdah, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, Microelectron. Eng. 97, 185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Dell’Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Lacour, N. Courjal, M.-P. Bernal, A. Sabac, C. Bainier, and M. Spajer, Opt. Mater. 27, 1421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of a ridge with a Bragg grating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) SEM image of a ridge cut by optical grade dicing. (b) Visualization of TE and TM modes at 1.55 μm with IR camera. The dashed lines represent the limit between the ridge and the air.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) SEM tilted view of a Bragg grating etched by FIB milling from top of a ridge. (b) Modeled behavior of Ex field through the grating. The simulation area represents a cross section of the ridge along the direction of propagation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM view of the Bragg grating etched from the lateral side of a ridge by FIB milling. The 14° tilt from the top part of the ridge allows us to see the bottom part of the Bragg grating. The dashed lines show the sidewall angle.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup for the measurement of the transmission and reflection through the Bragg grating in the C-band.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Reflected spectral density measured at the input of the structured ridge waveguide with Bragg gratings (TM wave). (b) Fourier transforms of the above spectrum, corresponding to the impulse response correlation of the reflected light in the ridge with and without the Bragg grating for both polarization.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Reflected spectral density measured at the input of the structured ridge waveguide with Bragg gratings (TM wave). Fourier transforms of the above spectrum, corresponding to the impulse response correlation of the reflected light in the ridge with and without the Bragg grating for both polarizations.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Theoretical distribution of Ez field in the Bragg grating at 1550 nm for different sidewall angles.

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