Abstract

In this Letter, we demonstrate an 8×8 apodized silicon photonic phased array where the emission from each of 64 nanoantennas was tailored to exhibit Gaussian-shaped intensity distributions in the near field so that the sidelobes of the generated far-field optical beam were suppressed compared to that of a uniform phased array. With the aid of the 72 thermo-optic phase tuners directly integrated within the phased array, we dynamically shaped the generated optical beam in the far field in a variety of ways.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, Opt. Lett. 21, 689 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, Opt. Express 21, 12238 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, in 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (2013), p. 2505.
  6. K. Van Acoleyen, H. Rogier, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 18, 13655 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Lett. 37, 4257 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Sun, D. B. Cole, A. Yaacobi, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2013, paper CTh5D.1.
  11. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2005).
  12. M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, Opt. Lett. 38, 733 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, Z. Su, E. S. Hosseini, D. B. Cole, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuit for optical phased array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20 (to be published).
  14. P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 20298 (2010).
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  15. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, Opt. Lett. 21, 689 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Amantea, R.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baets, R.

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

Carlson, N. W.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carr, L. A.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T.

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, Opt. Express 21, 12238 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, in 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (2013), p. 2505.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, Opt. Express 21, 12238 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, in 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (2013), p. 2505.

Chen, R. T.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Cole, D. B.

J. Sun, D. B. Cole, A. Yaacobi, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2013, paper CTh5D.1.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, Z. Su, E. S. Hosseini, D. B. Cole, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuit for optical phased array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20 (to be published).

Coolbaugh, D.

J. Sun, D. B. Cole, A. Yaacobi, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2013, paper CTh5D.1.

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Davenport, M. L.

DeRose, C.

Dong, P.

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, Opt. Lett. 21, 689 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Doylend, J. K.

Evans, G. A.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, Opt. Lett. 21, 689 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2005).

Hammer, J. M.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hawrylo, F. Z.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Heck, M. J. R.

Hobbs, D. S.

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, Opt. Lett. 21, 689 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horsley, D. A.

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, Opt. Express 21, 12238 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, in 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (2013), p. 2505.

Hosseini, A.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, D. B. Cole, A. Yaacobi, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2013, paper CTh5D.1.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, Z. Su, E. S. Hosseini, D. B. Cole, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuit for optical phased array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20 (to be published).

James, E. A.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, C. J.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. B.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kwong, D.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leake, G.

J. Sun, D. B. Cole, A. Yaacobi, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2013, paper CTh5D.1.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lurie, M.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M.

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, Opt. Express 21, 12238 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, in 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (2013), p. 2505.

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nielson, G. N.

Palfrey, S. L.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Peters, J. D.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Reichert, W. F.

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Resler, D. P.

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, Opt. Lett. 21, 689 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rogier, H.

Shafiiha, R.

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, Opt. Lett. 21, 689 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Su, Z.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, Z. Su, E. S. Hosseini, D. B. Cole, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuit for optical phased array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20 (to be published).

Sun, J.

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, Opt. Lett. 38, 733 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, D. B. Cole, A. Yaacobi, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2013, paper CTh5D.1.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, Z. Su, E. S. Hosseini, D. B. Cole, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuit for optical phased array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20 (to be published).

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, Opt. Express 21, 12238 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, in 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (2013), p. 2505.

Timurdogan, E.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, D. B. Cole, A. Yaacobi, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2013, paper CTh5D.1.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, Z. Su, E. S. Hosseini, D. B. Cole, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuit for optical phased array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20 (to be published).

Trotter, D. C.

Van Acoleyen, K.

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, Opt. Lett. 38, 733 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, Z. Su, E. S. Hosseini, D. B. Cole, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuit for optical phased array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20 (to be published).

J. Sun, D. B. Cole, A. Yaacobi, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2013, paper CTh5D.1.

Wu, M. C.

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, Opt. Express 21, 12238 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, in 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (2013), p. 2505.

Yaacobi, A.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, D. B. Cole, A. Yaacobi, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2013, paper CTh5D.1.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, Z. Su, E. S. Hosseini, D. B. Cole, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuit for optical phased array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20 (to be published).

Yang, W.

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, Opt. Express 21, 12238 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, in 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (2013), p. 2505.

Yoo, B.

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, Opt. Express 21, 12238 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, in 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (2013), p. 2505.

Young, R. W.

Zhang, Y.

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. W. Carlson, G. A. Evans, R. Amantea, S. L. Palfrey, J. M. Hammer, M. Lurie, L. A. Carr, F. Z. Hawrylo, E. A. James, C. J. Kaiser, J. B. Kirk, and W. F. Reichert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2275 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Nat. Photonics 2, 433 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

B. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, in 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (2013), p. 2505.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, Z. Su, E. S. Hosseini, D. B. Cole, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuit for optical phased array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.20 (to be published).

J. Sun, D. B. Cole, A. Yaacobi, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2013, paper CTh5D.1.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2005).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulated (a) near-field emission and (b) far-field optical beam form of a uniform 8×8 phased array. Simulated (c) near-field emission and (d) far-field optical beam form of a Gaussian-apodized 8×8 phased array.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematics of the silicon photonic phased array. Inset: a unit cell (m,n) of the phased array, including a directional coupler of length Lmn, a thermo-optically tunable optical delay line for a delayed phase φmn, and a compact optical nanoantenna. (b) The coupling coefficients of the 72 directional couplers to realize a Gaussian apodization profile. (c) The corresponding length of the directional couplers calculated from rigorous 3D FDTD. The shaded column corresponds to the 8 directional couplers that couple light from the main bus waveguide to the 8 row waveguides. (d) An optical image of the fabricated 8×8 apodized phased array. Inset: an SEM of the optical nanoantenna. (e) An SEM of the fabricated array after dry etching away the dielectric SiO2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured (a) near-field emission and (b) far-field optical beam form of a uniform 8×8 phased array. Measured (c) near-field emission and (d) far-field optical beam form of a Gaussian-apodized 8×8 phased array.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dynamic beam form generation using the apodized phased array. (a) The reference beam form with no phase tuning. The optical beam in the far field is (b) steered, (c) split into a 1×2 beam array, (d) split into a 2×1 beam array and shifted, and (e) split into a 2×2 beam array with active phase tuning. Note that only one of the interference orders in the far field is shown here.

Equations (1)

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Fa(θ,ϕ)F(wmn)=F(Amn·ejφmn),

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