Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate broadband waveguide crossing arrays showing ultralow loss of 0.04dB/crossing (0.9%) on average and converging to 0.033dB/crossing (0.075%) matching theory and cross-talk suppression over 35 dB in a CMOS-compatible geometry. The principle of operation is the tailored excitation of a low-loss spatial Bloch wave formed by matching the periodicity of the crossing array to the difference in propagation constants of the first- and third-order TE-like modes of a multimode silicon waveguide. Radiative scattering at the crossing points acts like a periodic imaginary-permittivity perturbation that couples two supermodes, which results in imaginary (radiative) propagation-constant splitting and gives rise to a low-loss, unidirectional breathing Bloch wave. This type of crossing array provides a robust implementation of a key component enabling dense photonic integration.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), October2007, paper MF5.
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  14. Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 422 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM1A.4.
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. C. Gentry and M. Popović, in The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: 2013, OSA Technical Digest, June2013, paper CM3F.1.
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    [CrossRef]
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  22. Y. Liu, X. Zeng, J. Shainline, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM2B.6.
  23. J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, M. T. Wade, K. Nammari, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, R. Meade, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. Popović, Opt. Lett. 38, 2729 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

2012 (1)

Y. Yu, M. Heuck, S. Ek, N. Kuznetsova, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

2006 (3)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Popović, C. Manolatou, and M. R. Watts, Opt. Express 14, 1208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, Opt. Commun. 241, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

1961 (1)

G. Goubau and F. Schwering, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 9, 248 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Asanovic, K.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Baba, T.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 422 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Batten, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bock, P. J.

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chen, H.

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

Dahlem, M. S.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July2010, paper IMC4.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

DeRose, C.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ek, S.

Y. Yu, M. Heuck, S. Ek, N. Kuznetsova, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Fukazawa, T.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galland, C.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 422 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gentry, C.

C. Gentry and M. Popović, in The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: 2013, OSA Technical Digest, June2013, paper CM3F.1.

Goubau, G.

G. Goubau and F. Schwering, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 9, 248 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

Haus, H. A.

Heuck, M.

Y. Yu, M. Heuck, S. Ek, N. Kuznetsova, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, T.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 422 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Holzwarth, C. W.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July2010, paper IMC4.

Hosseini, A.

Hoyt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Ippen, E. P.

M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), October2007, paper MF5.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July2010, paper IMC4.

Jaenen, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Jones, A.

Joshi, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Kärtner, F.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Kärtner, F. X.

M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), October2007, paper MF5.

Khilo, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Kuznetsova, N.

Y. Yu, M. Heuck, S. Ek, N. Kuznetsova, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.

Lapointe, J.

Lentine, A.

Li, H.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Lim, A. E.-J.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 422 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, Opt. Commun. 241, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, X. Zeng, J. Shainline, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM2B.6.

Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM1A.4.

Lo, G.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 422 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

Meade, R.

Mørk, J.

Y. Yu, M. Heuck, S. Ek, N. Kuznetsova, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moss, B.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Nammari, K.

Norwood, R.

Ohno, F.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Orcutt, J. S.

Poon, A. W.

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M.

J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, M. T. Wade, K. Nammari, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, R. Meade, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. Popović, Opt. Lett. 38, 2729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

C. Gentry and M. Popović, in The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: 2013, OSA Technical Digest, June2013, paper CM3F.1.

Popovic, M. A.

M. A. Popović, C. Manolatou, and M. R. Watts, Opt. Express 14, 1208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM1A.4.

M. A. Popović, “Low-loss Bloch wave guiding in open structures and highly compact efficient waveguide-crossing arrays,” U.S. patent7,903,909 (March8, 2011).

M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), October2007, paper MF5.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July2010, paper IMC4.

Y. Liu, X. Zeng, J. Shainline, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM2B.6.

Pun, E.

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, Opt. Commun. 241, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Ram, R. J.

Schmid, J. H.

Schwering, F.

G. Goubau and F. Schwering, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 9, 248 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Shainline, J.

Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM1A.4.

Y. Liu, X. Zeng, J. Shainline, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM2B.6.

Shainline, J. M.

Smith, H.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Smith, H. I.

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July2010, paper IMC4.

Starbuck, A.

Sternberg, Z.

Stojanovic, V.

J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, M. T. Wade, K. Nammari, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, R. Meade, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. Popović, Opt. Lett. 38, 2729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

Stuart, H. R.

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H.

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, Opt. Commun. 241, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tehar-Zahav, O.

Thourhout, D. V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D.

Villeneuve, P. R.

Wade, M. T.

Wai, P. K. A.

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, Opt. Commun. 241, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

M. A. Popović, C. Manolatou, and M. R. Watts, Opt. Express 14, 1208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, “Polarization independent microphotonic circuits,” Ph.D. thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005).

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, X.

Yang, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 422 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, M. Heuck, S. Ek, N. Kuznetsova, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yvind, K.

Y. Yu, M. Heuck, S. Ek, N. Kuznetsova, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM1A.4.

Y. Liu, X. Zeng, J. Shainline, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM2B.6.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 422 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Xu, D. Kwong, and R. Chen, Opt. Lett. 38, 3608 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Yu, M. Heuck, S. Ek, N. Kuznetsova, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro. (1)

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro. 29, 8 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. E.-J. Lim, G. Lo, C. Galland, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 422 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

G. Goubau and F. Schwering, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 9, 248 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, Opt. Commun. 241, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (8)

M. R. Watts, “Polarization independent microphotonic circuits,” Ph.D. thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005).

Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM1A.4.

M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), October2007, paper MF5.

M. A. Popović, “Low-loss Bloch wave guiding in open structures and highly compact efficient waveguide-crossing arrays,” U.S. patent7,903,909 (March8, 2011).

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and M. A. Popović, in Proceedings of Integrated Photonics Research, July2010, paper IMC4.

C. Gentry and M. Popović, in The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: 2013, OSA Technical Digest, June2013, paper CM3F.1.

ePIXfab, http://www.epixfab.eu .

Y. Liu, X. Zeng, J. Shainline, and M. A. Popović, in Integrated Photonics Research, July2013, paper IM2B.6.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Ultra-low-loss waveguide crossing array based on excitation of a low-loss breathing Bloch wave formed of the first and third modes of a multimode waveguide (2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation) [12]. The mode is stabilized by radiative loss.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Unidirectional low-loss Bloch modes: (a) illustration of complex-k band structure of unperturbed waveguide and imaginary-k splitting due to radiative crossings; (b) low-loss breathing field due to matching periodicities of the structure and of the breathing optical field [2D FDTD; bottom: 100× oversaturated intensity to show detail, green dot in (a)] [12]; (c) high propagation loss with mismatched structure and breathing mode periodicities.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Crossing design: (a) short, nonadiabatic symmetric taper as a directional coupler between the first- and third-order modes, allowing efficient excitation of a breathing Bloch mode of the crossing array, coupling, and loss versus length. (b) Simulated transmission after one to ten crossings and through entire structure including tapers (3D FDTD). (c) Field from a monochromatic 3D FDTD simulation at 1550 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Optical micrograph of on-chip crossing arrays fabricated through IMEC/ePIXfab [21] with 10, 250, and 50 periods. (b) SEM of a ten-period low-loss Bloch crossing array. (c) SEM of a ten-period normal crossing array.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Spectral insertion loss of Bloch arrays with 10, 50, 150, and 250 crossings (1510 nm width) and (b) insertion loss/crossing versus wavelength of crossing arrays with waveguide widths from 1450 to 1510 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Insertion loss versus number of crossings in Bloch crossing array (width 1510 nm) and a ten-crossing normal array at λ=1505.8nm where the Bloch crossing has the lowest loss and at λ=1542.1nm where the normal crossings have the lowest loss. (b) Transmission and cross talk spectra of the Bloch and normal crossing arrays with ten periods.

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