Abstract

To reduce the complexity of fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry, a system incorporating a fiber-coupled optical circulator to deflect the cavity-reflected light for laser stabilization has been realized. Detection near the shot-noise limit has been demonstrated for both Doppler-broadened and sub-Doppler signals, yielding a lowest detectable absorption and optical phase shift of 2.2×1012cm1 and 4.0×1012cm1, respectively, both for a 10 s integration time, where the former corresponds to a detection limit of C2H2 of 5 ppt.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

2010 (2)

I. Coddington, W. Swann, and N. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, J. Wang, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, Opt. Express 18, 18580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

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J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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M. Taubmann, T. Myers, B. Cannon, and R. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. van Leeuwen and A. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 920 (1999).

L. Gianfrani, R. Fox, and L. Hollberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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1984 (1)

R. DeVoe and R. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. Allan, PR. Inst. Electr. Elect. 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D.

D. Allan, PR. Inst. Electr. Elect. 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

Bell, C. L.

Bjorklund, G.

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J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, R.

R. DeVoe and R. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, B.

M. Taubmann, T. Myers, B. Cannon, and R. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. Swann, and N. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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R. DeVoe and R. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ehlers, P.

Foltynowicz, A.

Fox, R.

Gehrtz, M.

Gianfrani, L.

Hall, J.

Hancock, G.

Hollberg, L.

Ishibashi, C.

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 920 (1999).

Ma, L.

Ma, W.

McCall, B. J.

McIlroy, A.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Myers, T.

M. Taubmann, T. Myers, B. Cannon, and R. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N.

I. Coddington, W. Swann, and N. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, D.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. M.

Peverall, R.

Porambo, M. W.

Ritchie, G. A. D.

Sasada, H.

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 920 (1999).

Schmidt, F. M.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, Appl. Phys. B 92, 313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silander, I.

Siller, B. M.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W.

I. Coddington, W. Swann, and N. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taubmann, M.

M. Taubmann, T. Myers, B. Cannon, and R. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Helden, J. H.

van Leeuwen, N.

van Leeuwen, N. J.

Wang, J.

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

Williams, R.

M. Taubmann, T. Myers, B. Cannon, and R. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, A.

Ye, J.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, Appl. Phys. B 92, 313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (9)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 920 (1999).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

R. DeVoe and R. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. Swann, and N. Newbury, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

PR. Inst. Electr. Elect. (1)

D. Allan, PR. Inst. Electr. Elect. 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta A (1)

M. Taubmann, T. Myers, B. Cannon, and R. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of the FLB-NICE-OHMS instrumentation realized in this work. Solid lines with circular markers, optical fibers; dotted lines, free-space light path; other solid lines, electrical cables; EDFL, Er-doped fiber laser; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; EOM, electro-optic modulator; OC, FC optical circulator; C, output coupler; L, beam shaping lens; D1, FC reflection detector; D2, FS transmission detector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical setup. AOM (1), EOM and RF-combiner (2), OC (3) connected to D1 (4), fiber collimator (5), mode-matching lens (6), mirrors for beam alignment (7), cavity (8), and D2 with focusing lens (9).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

NICE-OHMS signals. Doppler broadened (a) at absorption (small blue curve) and dispersion phase (large red curve). Sub-Doppler (b) in FM (small blue curve) and WM mode (large red curve).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Allan deviation of the absorption coefficient measured by DB dispersion mode of detection and (b) the Allan deviation of the sD optical phase shift per unit length in WM mode of detection.

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