Abstract

A novel polarization beam splitter (PBS) with an extremely small footprint is proposed based on a multimode interference (MMI) coupler with a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide. The MMI section, covered with a metal strip partially, is designed to achieve mirror imaging for TE polarization. On the other hand, for TM polarization, there is almost no MMI effect since the higher-order TM modes are hardly excited due to the hybrid plasmonic effect. With this design, the whole PBS including the 1.1 μm long MMI section as well as the output section has a footprint as small as 1.8μm×2.5μm. Besides, the fabrication process is simple since the waveguide dimension is relatively large (e.g., the input/output waveguides widths w300nm and the MMI width wMMI=800nm). Numerical simulations show that the designed PBS has a broad band of 80nm for an ER >10dB as well as a large fabrication tolerance to allow a silicon core width variation of 30nm<Δw<50nm and a metal strip width variation of 200nm<Δwm<0.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D. Xu, and S. He, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 303 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Z. Tu, H. Yi, Y. Li, X. Wang, and W. Hu, Opt. Commun. 307, 46 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, F. Hu, X. Wang, L. Tang, and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. B 113, 199 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Guan, H. Wu, Y. Shi, L. Wosinski, and D. Dai, Opt. Lett. 38, 3005 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).

2009

A. Katigbak, J. F. Strother, and J. Lin, Opt. Eng. 48, 080503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Yang, S. Shin, and D. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 432 (2009).

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, Opt. Express 17, 9422 (2009).

D. Dai and S. He, Opt. Express 17, 16646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748 (2008).

T. Yamazaki, H. Aono, J. Yamauchi, and H. Nakano, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, P. Cheben, and N. G. Tarr, Opt. Lett. 32, 1492 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 825 (2007).

J. Feng and Z. Zhou, Opt. Lett. 32, 1662 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).

2006

2005

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 393 (2005).

2003

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

2001

B. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. Grattan, Appl. Phys. B 73, 613 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).

Ang, S. S. N.

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).

Aono, H.

Baets, R.

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bauters, J.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. Bowers, Light: Sci. Appl. 1, 1 (2012).

Bowers, J.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. Bowers, Light: Sci. Appl. 1, 1 (2012).

D. Dai and J. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 18614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chee, J.

Chen, S.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, Opt. Express 17, 9422 (2009).

Chew, A. B.

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).

Crespi, A.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Feng, J.

Gao, L.

L. Gao, F. Hu, X. Wang, L. Tang, and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. B 113, 199 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gao, S.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D. Xu, and S. He, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 303 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K.

B. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. Grattan, Appl. Phys. B 73, 613 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Groen, F. H.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).

Guan, X.

He, S.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D. Xu, and S. He, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 303 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai and S. He, Opt. Express 17, 16646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 825 (2007).

Hong, J.

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

Hu, F.

L. Gao, F. Hu, X. Wang, L. Tang, and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. B 113, 199 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

Y. Huang, Z. Tu, H. Yi, Y. Li, X. Wang, and W. Hu, Opt. Commun. 307, 46 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, Z. Tu, H. Yi, Y. Li, X. Wang, and W. Hu, Opt. Commun. 307, 46 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, C.

S. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).

Janz, S.

Jeong, J.

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

Kartner, F. X.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasarova, S.

S. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).

Katigbak, A.

A. Katigbak, J. F. Strother, and J. Lin, Opt. Eng. 48, 080503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

Lee, E.

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

Lee, S.

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

Li, Y.

Y. Huang, Z. Tu, H. Yi, Y. Li, X. Wang, and W. Hu, Opt. Commun. 307, 46 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 393 (2005).

Lin, J.

A. Katigbak, J. F. Strother, and J. Lin, Opt. Eng. 48, 080503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D. Xu, and S. He, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 303 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748 (2008).

Lo, G. Q.

Lou, F.

Ma, Y.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, Opt. Express 17, 9422 (2009).

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Mataloni, P.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mei, T.

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).

Metaal, E. G.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).

Nakano, H.

Nikolov, I.

S. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).

O, B.-H.

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

Osellame, R.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, B.

B. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. Grattan, Appl. Phys. B 73, 613 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Ryu, H.

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

Sansoni, L.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sciarrino, F.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

X. Guan, H. Wu, Y. Shi, L. Wosinski, and D. Dai, Opt. Lett. 38, 3005 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 825 (2007).

Shieh, W.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, Opt. Express 17, 9422 (2009).

Shin, S.

B. Yang, S. Shin, and D. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 432 (2009).

Smit, M. K.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Socci, L.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).

L. B. Soldano, Multimode Interference Couplers: Design and Applications (Delft University, 1994).

Somasiri, N.

B. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. Grattan, Appl. Phys. B 73, 613 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strother, J. F.

A. Katigbak, J. F. Strother, and J. Lin, Opt. Eng. 48, 080503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sultanova, N.

S. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).

Sun, X.

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748 (2008).

Tang, L.

L. Gao, F. Hu, X. Wang, L. Tang, and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. B 113, 199 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, Opt. Express 17, 9422 (2009).

Tarr, N. G.

Teng, J.

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).

Themistos, C.

B. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. Grattan, Appl. Phys. B 73, 613 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D.

Tsang, H. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 393 (2005).

Tu, X.

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).

Tu, Z.

Y. Huang, Z. Tu, H. Yi, Y. Li, X. Wang, and W. Hu, Opt. Commun. 307, 46 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vallone, G.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).

Vreede, A. H.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).

Waldron, P.

Wang, X.

Y. Huang, Z. Tu, H. Yi, Y. Li, X. Wang, and W. Hu, Opt. Commun. 307, 46 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, F. Hu, X. Wang, L. Tang, and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. B 113, 199 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woo, D.

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

Wosinski, L.

Wu, H.

Xiao, J.

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748 (2008).

Xu, D.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D. Xu, and S. He, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 303 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

Yamauchi, J.

Yamazaki, T.

Yang, B.

B. Yang, S. Shin, and D. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 432 (2009).

Yang, Q.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, Opt. Express 17, 9422 (2009).

Ye, W. N.

Yi, H.

Y. Huang, Z. Tu, H. Yi, Y. Li, X. Wang, and W. Hu, Opt. Commun. 307, 46 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

B. Yang, S. Shin, and D. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 432 (2009).

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

L. Gao, F. Hu, X. Wang, L. Tang, and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. B 113, 199 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng and Z. Zhou, Opt. Lett. 32, 1662 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

Appl. Phys. B

B. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. Grattan, Appl. Phys. B 73, 613 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, F. Hu, X. Wang, L. Tang, and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. B 113, 199 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Hong, H. Ryu, S. Park, J. Jeong, S. Lee, E. Lee, S. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, and B.-H. O, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72 (2003).

Y. Shi, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 825 (2007).

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 393 (2005).

B. Yang, S. Shin, and D. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 432 (2009).

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748 (2008).

Laser Photon. Rev.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic configuration of the proposed PBS. Inset: the cross section of the MMI region.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effective indices of the MMI waveguide covered by a metal strip partially whose width is wm=400nm. Here, the wavelength is 1550 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mode excitation ratio ηv in the MMI section. Here, wMMI=800nm, the metal-strip width wm=w1, and the wavelength is 1550 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

ERs and excess losses vary as the MMI length LMMI increases. Here, w1=420nm, w2=300nm, wMMI=800nm, and R=1.2μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Light propagation in the designed PBS with LMMI=1.1μm, (a) TE, (b) TM. Here, w1=420nm, w2=300nm, wMMI=800nm, R=1.2μm, and the wavelength is 1550 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Wavelength dependence of the designed MMI-based PBS.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fabrication tolerance of the designed PBS when there is a waveguide width variation Δw (a), a metal strip width variation Δwm (b).

Equations (1)

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ηv=|E0_in×Hv_MMI*dS|2,

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