Abstract

We report a novel linear-in-wavenumber (k-linear) swept laser source based on an acousto-optic deflector (AOD). The AOD-based optical filter includes an acousto-optic deflector and a reflection grating. The laser may tune k linearly in wavenumber over time due to its appropriate configuration and is favorable for fast imaging because it avoids data resampling and recalibration, as are required in conventional swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). We achieved k-linearity with Pearson’s r correlation coefficients of 0.99995 without and 0.99997 with optimization. The laser has a tuning range of 50 nm, a 3 dB swept range of 42 nm (FWHM), output power of 2.56 mW, 6 dB sensitivity roll-off depth of 0.941 mm, and central wavelength of 1064 nm at a scanning rate of 20kHz. Scanning rate as high as 400kHz is also achieved for this laser with the tuning range 49 nm, swept linearity of 0.99990, output power of 2.30 mW, and a 6 dB sensitivity roll-off depth 0.550 mm. SS-OCT imaging with linear-in-wavenumber swept laser is also demonstrated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (6)

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130M (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, B. Potsaid, G. Cole, J. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760D (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhang, T. Chen, C. Wang, J. Zhang, T. Huo, J. Zheng, and P. Xue, Opt. Lett. 37, 1307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Liu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

T. Suzuki, R. Nagai, and S. Choi, Opt. Commun. 284, 4615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

K. Totsuka, K. Isamoto, T. Sakai, A. Morosawa, and C. Chong, Proc. SPIE 7554, 75542Q (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, Opt. Express 18, 14685 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, Opt. Express 16, 8916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lobintsov, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, Quantum Electron. 38, 661 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Kodach, D. J. Faber, and T. G. Van Leeuwen, Opt. Commun. 281, 4975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, Opt. Lett. 32, 3525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. V. Andreeva, L. N. Magdich, D. S. Mamedov, A. A. Ruenkov, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, Quantum Electron. 36, 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2003 (3)

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Adler, D. C.

Andreeva, E. V.

E. V. Andreeva, L. N. Magdich, D. S. Mamedov, A. A. Ruenkov, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, Quantum Electron. 36, 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biedermann, B. R.

Boer, J. F.

Boschert, P.

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Cable, A.

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, B. Potsaid, G. Cole, J. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A. E.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Liu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130M (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

Chiccone, C.

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chinn, S. R.

Choi, S.

T. Suzuki, R. Nagai, and S. Choi, Opt. Commun. 284, 4615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chong, C.

K. Totsuka, K. Isamoto, T. Sakai, A. Morosawa, and C. Chong, Proc. SPIE 7554, 75542Q (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cole, G.

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, B. Potsaid, G. Cole, J. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M.

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Derickson, D.

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duker, J. S.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Ensher, J.

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Faber, D. J.

V. M. Kodach, D. J. Faber, and T. G. Van Leeuwen, Opt. Commun. 281, 4975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Featherston, K.

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, B. Potsaid, G. Cole, J. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fujiura, K.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grulkowski, I.

Haruna, M.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Heim, P. J. S.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130M (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, B.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hlawatsch, F.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, B.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huber, J.

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

Huo, T.

Ina, H.

Isamoto, K.

K. Totsuka, K. Isamoto, T. Sakai, A. Morosawa, and C. Chong, Proc. SPIE 7554, 75542Q (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jayaraman, V.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Liu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, B. Potsaid, G. Cole, J. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760D (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130M (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130M (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, B. Potsaid, G. Cole, J. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760D (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Liu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Klein, T.

Kobayashi, J.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

Kodach, V. M.

V. M. Kodach, D. J. Faber, and T. G. Van Leeuwen, Opt. Commun. 281, 4975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. D.

Liu, J. J.

Lobintsov, A. A.

A. A. Lobintsov, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, Quantum Electron. 38, 661 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Magdich, L. N.

E. V. Andreeva, L. N. Magdich, D. S. Mamedov, A. A. Ruenkov, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, Quantum Electron. 36, 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mamedov, D. S.

E. V. Andreeva, L. N. Magdich, D. S. Mamedov, A. A. Ruenkov, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, Quantum Electron. 36, 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matz, G.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minneman, M.

J. Ensher, P. Boschert, K. Featherston, J. Huber, M. Crawford, M. Minneman, C. Chiccone, and D. Derickson, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morosawa, A.

K. Totsuka, K. Isamoto, T. Sakai, A. Morosawa, and C. Chong, Proc. SPIE 7554, 75542Q (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, R.

T. Suzuki, R. Nagai, and S. Choi, Opt. Commun. 284, 4615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohmi, M.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Okabe, Y.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Omiya, K.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Owen, G.

Palte, G.

Park, B.

Pierce, M. C.

Potsaid, B.

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8213, 82130M (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Liu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2733 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, B. Potsaid, G. Cole, J. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760D (2012).
[CrossRef]

Povazay, B.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

Ruenkov, A. A.

E. V. Andreeva, L. N. Magdich, D. S. Mamedov, A. A. Ruenkov, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, Quantum Electron. 36, 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

K. Totsuka, K. Isamoto, T. Sakai, A. Morosawa, and C. Chong, Proc. SPIE 7554, 75542Q (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Y.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shramenko, M. V.

A. A. Lobintsov, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, Quantum Electron. 38, 661 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Andreeva, L. N. Magdich, D. S. Mamedov, A. A. Ruenkov, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, Quantum Electron. 36, 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, R. Nagai, and S. Choi, Opt. Commun. 284, 4615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn and E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 22, 340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Tearney, G. J.

Tearney, J.

Totsuka, K.

K. Totsuka, K. Isamoto, T. Sakai, A. Morosawa, and C. Chong, Proc. SPIE 7554, 75542Q (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, S.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Trutna, W. R.

Ueno, M.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, Electron. Lett. 48, 201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Leeuwen, T. G.

V. M. Kodach, D. J. Faber, and T. G. Van Leeuwen, Opt. Commun. 281, 4975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the k-linear swept laser. SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier; AOD, acousto-optic deflector; SMF, single-mode fiber; PC, polarization controller. Δ, the separation angle between the zero order beam of the AOD and the normal of the grating (dashed line). (b) Wavenumber versus time curve calculated based on Eq. (3).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) and (b) Fringes (with Gaussian window), the wavenumber versus time curve (dashed) and its linear fit (dotted); (c) and (d) relative frequency error curve of the AOD-based and the galvo-mirror-based swept lasers, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temporal intensity profile at different scanning rates: (a) 20 kHz, (b) 200 kHz, (c) 400 kHz, and (d) 2 MHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) PSFs calculated directly from the measured fringe signals at several different depths. 2D cross-sectional imaging of infrared photo film by (b) the AOD-based SS-OCT system with the cubic spline interpolation technique (1, transparent tape; 2, coverslip; 3, air layer; 4, photosensitive materials), (c) the AOD-based SS-OCT system without any interpolation, and (d) the scanning galvo-mirror-based SS-OCT system without any interpolation. The scale bar represents 100 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance at Different Scanning Rates

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Θ(λ0,Fs)=θd+θi=2arcsin(λ0Fs2nopvs),
mλ0=2psin[Θ(λ0,Fs)+Δ],
Fs=2nopvsk0sin{12[arcsin(m2pk0)Δ]}.
k(tj)=ϕ(tj)2z0,

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