Abstract

With the goal of creating magneto-optical devices, we demonstrated forming nanostructures inside a substrate of cerium-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Ce:YIG) by means of direct laser writing. Laser irradiation changed both the optical and magnetic properties of Ce:YIG. The measurements showed that the refractive index was increased by 0.015 (about 0.7% change) and the magnetization property was changed from hard to soft to decrease the coercivity. This technology enables the formation of 3-dimensional optical and magnetic nanostructures in YIG and will contribute to the development of novel devices for optical communication and photonic integration.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Mizumoto, R. Takei, and Y. Shoji, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 252 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. L. Espinola, T. Izuhara, M. C. Tsai, R. M. Osgood, and H. Dötsch, Opt. Lett. 29, 941 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
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2013 (1)

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, Y. Shirato, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601108 (2013).

2012 (1)

T. Mizumoto, R. Takei, and Y. Shoji, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 252 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

M.-C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 11740 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

R. Takei, K. Yoshida, and T. Mizumoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 086204 (2010).

2009 (1)

M. C. Sekhar, J. Y. Hwang, M. Ferrera, Y. Linzon, L. Razzari, C. Harnagea, M. Zaezjev, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamauchi, H. Iwai, M. Miwa, and Y. Yamashita, Opt. Express 16, 12227 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Dötsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).

I. L. Lyubchanskii, N. N. Dadoenkova, M. I. Lyubchanskii, E. A. Shapovalov, and Th. Rasing, J. Phys. D 36, R277 (2003).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

Baets, R.

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, Y. Shirato, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601108 (2013).

Bahlmann, N.

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Blanc-Mignon, M.-F.

T. Boudiar, B. Payet-Gervy, M.-F. Blanc-Mignon, J.-J. Rousseau, M. Le Berre, and H. Joisten, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 284, 77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boudiar, T.

T. Boudiar, B. Payet-Gervy, M.-F. Blanc-Mignon, J.-J. Rousseau, M. Le Berre, and H. Joisten, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 284, 77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dadoenkova, N. N.

I. L. Lyubchanskii, N. N. Dadoenkova, M. I. Lyubchanskii, E. A. Shapovalov, and Th. Rasing, J. Phys. D 36, R277 (2003).

Dasari, R. R.

Davis, K. M.

Dionne, G. F.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Dötsch, H.

Espinola, R. L.

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

Ferrera, M.

M. C. Sekhar, J. Y. Hwang, M. Ferrera, Y. Linzon, L. Razzari, C. Harnagea, M. Zaezjev, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Futakuchi, N.

Garcia, J. F.

Gerhardt, R.

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, Y. Shirato, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601108 (2013).

Hammer, M.

Harnagea, C.

M. C. Sekhar, J. Y. Hwang, M. Ferrera, Y. Linzon, L. Razzari, C. Harnagea, M. Zaezjev, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, P.

Hirao, K.

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, I.-W.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Hwang, J. Y.

M. C. Sekhar, J. Y. Hwang, M. Ferrera, Y. Linzon, L. Razzari, C. Harnagea, M. Zaezjev, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, A.

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, H.

Izuhara, T.

Jiang, P.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Joisten, H.

T. Boudiar, B. Payet-Gervy, M.-F. Blanc-Mignon, J.-J. Rousseau, M. Le Berre, and H. Joisten, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 284, 77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keyvaninia, S.

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, Y. Shirato, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601108 (2013).

Kim, D. H.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kotov, V. A.

A. K. Zvezdin and V. A. Kotov, Modern Magnetooptics and Magnetooptical Materials (Taylor & Francis, 1997).

Kromer, H.

Le Berre, M.

T. Boudiar, B. Payet-Gervy, M.-F. Blanc-Mignon, J.-J. Rousseau, M. Le Berre, and H. Joisten, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 284, 77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linzon, Y.

M. C. Sekhar, J. Y. Hwang, M. Ferrera, Y. Linzon, L. Razzari, C. Harnagea, M. Zaezjev, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lyubchanskii, I. L.

I. L. Lyubchanskii, N. N. Dadoenkova, M. I. Lyubchanskii, E. A. Shapovalov, and Th. Rasing, J. Phys. D 36, R277 (2003).

Lyubchanskii, M. I.

I. L. Lyubchanskii, N. N. Dadoenkova, M. I. Lyubchanskii, E. A. Shapovalov, and Th. Rasing, J. Phys. D 36, R277 (2003).

Mazur, E.

Miura, K.

Miwa, M.

Mizumoto, T.

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, Y. Shirato, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601108 (2013).

T. Mizumoto, R. Takei, and Y. Shoji, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 252 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 19, 11740 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Takei, K. Yoshida, and T. Mizumoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 086204 (2010).

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, and Y. Nakano, Appl. Opt. 39, 6158 (2000).

Morandotti, R.

M. C. Sekhar, J. Y. Hwang, M. Ferrera, Y. Linzon, L. Razzari, C. Harnagea, M. Zaezjev, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).

Osgood, R. M.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, T. Izuhara, M. C. Tsai, R. M. Osgood, and H. Dötsch, Opt. Lett. 29, 941 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Payet-Gervy, B.

T. Boudiar, B. Payet-Gervy, M.-F. Blanc-Mignon, J.-J. Rousseau, M. Le Berre, and H. Joisten, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 284, 77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pignolet, A.

M. C. Sekhar, J. Y. Hwang, M. Ferrera, Y. Linzon, L. Razzari, C. Harnagea, M. Zaezjev, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pintus, P.

Popescu, G.

Popkov, A. F.

Rasing, Th.

I. L. Lyubchanskii, N. N. Dadoenkova, M. I. Lyubchanskii, E. A. Shapovalov, and Th. Rasing, J. Phys. D 36, R277 (2003).

Razzari, L.

M. C. Sekhar, J. Y. Hwang, M. Ferrera, Y. Linzon, L. Razzari, C. Harnagea, M. Zaezjev, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, Y. Shirato, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601108 (2013).

Ross, C. A.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Rousseau, J.-J.

T. Boudiar, B. Payet-Gervy, M.-F. Blanc-Mignon, J.-J. Rousseau, M. Le Berre, and H. Joisten, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 284, 77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sekhar, M. C.

M. C. Sekhar, J. Y. Hwang, M. Ferrera, Y. Linzon, L. Razzari, C. Harnagea, M. Zaezjev, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shapovalov, E. A.

I. L. Lyubchanskii, N. N. Dadoenkova, M. I. Lyubchanskii, E. A. Shapovalov, and Th. Rasing, J. Phys. D 36, R277 (2003).

Shinjo, N.

Shirato, Y.

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, Y. Shirato, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601108 (2013).

Shoji, Y.

T. Mizumoto, R. Takei, and Y. Shoji, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 252 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Takei, R.

T. Mizumoto, R. Takei, and Y. Shoji, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 252 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Takei, K. Yoshida, and T. Mizumoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 086204 (2010).

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tien, M.-C.

Tsai, M. C.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).

Wax, A.

Wilkens, L.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).

Yamashita, Y.

Yamauchi, T.

Yokoi, H.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, and Y. Nakano, Appl. Opt. 39, 6158 (2000).

Yoshida, K.

R. Takei, K. Yoshida, and T. Mizumoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 086204 (2010).

Zaezjev, M.

M. C. Sekhar, J. Y. Hwang, M. Ferrera, Y. Linzon, L. Razzari, C. Harnagea, M. Zaezjev, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhuromskyy, O.

Zvezdin, A. K.

A. K. Zvezdin and V. A. Kotov, Modern Magnetooptics and Magnetooptical Materials (Taylor & Francis, 1997).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Sekhar, J. Y. Hwang, M. Ferrera, Y. Linzon, L. Razzari, C. Harnagea, M. Zaezjev, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Mizumoto, R. Takei, and Y. Shoji, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 252 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, Y. Shirato, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6601108 (2013).

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (1)

T. Boudiar, B. Payet-Gervy, M.-F. Blanc-Mignon, J.-J. Rousseau, M. Le Berre, and H. Joisten, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 284, 77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

I. L. Lyubchanskii, N. N. Dadoenkova, M. I. Lyubchanskii, E. A. Shapovalov, and Th. Rasing, J. Phys. D 36, R277 (2003).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Takei, K. Yoshida, and T. Mizumoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 086204 (2010).

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

A. K. Zvezdin and V. A. Kotov, Modern Magnetooptics and Magnetooptical Materials (Taylor & Francis, 1997).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Epitaxial ferrimagnetic Ce:YIG layer grown on a (111)-oriented nonmagnetic garnet (SGGG) substrate. (b) X-ray diffraction spectrum of the Ce:YIG/SGGG wafer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical system used for direct 3D laser writing on a Ce:YIG layer grown on a SGGG substrate.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plane view of lines in Ce:YIG layer written with different laser powers, observed with (a) reflected light optical microscopy and (b) phase-contrast microscopy. One multipass line 6 and five single-pass lines 1–5 are written, but some of them cannot be observed (see text).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Change in refractive index around irradiated Ce:YIG lines. (a) Distribution of change observed with quantitative phase imaging. The left profile is for lines 6 and 1 shown in Fig. 3, and the right profile is for lines 4 and 5. (b) Change in refractive index along the dashed lines in (a). The inset shows enlarged view of the data around the line 4.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effect of laser irradiation on magnetization. (a)–(f) Magneto-optical polar-Kerr-effect images of the sample at room temperature. The dark regions are positively magnetized, and the light regions are negatively magnetized. Each figure shows the domain configurations under an external magnetic field of (a) 470.7Oe, (b) 25.3Oe, (c) 24.3 Oe, (d) 495 Oe, (e) 197.9 Oe, and (f) 223.5Oe. (g) Phase-contrast microscope image of the same sample. (h) Schematic magnetization curve of Ce:YIG layer with and without irradiation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Functional nanostructures formed monolithically inside Ce:YIG layer on SGGG substrate: (a) nonreciprocal-phase-shift waveguide and (b) 3D magneto-photonic crystal (or periodic nanostructure).

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