Abstract

The fabrication of high-quality-factor polycrystalline TiO2 vertically rolled-up microcavities (VRUMs) by the controlled release of differentially strained TiO2 bilayered nanomembranes, operating at both telecom and visible wavelengths, is reported. Optical characterization of these resonators reveals quality factors as high as 3.8×103 in the telecom wavelength range (1520–1570 nm) by interfacing a TiO2 VRUMs with a tapered optical fiber. In addition, a splitting in the fundamental modes is experimentally observed due to the broken rotational symmetry in our resonators. This mode splitting indicates coupling between clockwise and counterclockwise traveling whispering gallery modes of the VRUMs. Moreover, we show that our biocompatible rolled-up TiO2 resonators function at several positions along the tube, making them promising candidates for multiplexing and biosensing applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

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2012 (5)

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

O. G. Schmidt and K. Eberl, Nature 410, 168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Y. Yamamoto and R. E. Slusher, Phys. Today 46(6), 66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bianucci, P.

Böttner, S.

S. Böttner, S. Li, M. R. Jorgensen, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251119 (2013).
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S. Böttner, S. Li, J. Trommer, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 37, 5136 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, J. D. B.

Choy, J. T.

Chu, P. K.

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, X.

Dastjerdi, M. H. T.

Deotare, P. B.

Ding, F.

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eberl, K.

O. G. Schmidt and K. Eberl, Nature 410, 168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. C.

Fu, R. K. Y.

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harazim, S. M.

S. M. Harazim, V. A. B. Quinones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, D.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heyn, C.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

Huang, G.

J. Wang, T. Zhan, G. Huang, X. Cui, X. Hu, and Y. Mei, Opt. Express 20, 18555 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, M. R.

S. Böttner, S. Li, M. R. Jorgensen, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, L. Ma, H. Zhen, M. R. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kipp, T.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiravittaya, S.

S. M. Harazim, V. A. B. Quinones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Böttner, S. Li, J. Trommer, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 37, 5136 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, L. Ma, H. Zhen, M. R. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A. G.

Li, S.

S. Böttner, S. Li, M. R. Jorgensen, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Böttner, S. Li, J. Trommer, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 37, 5136 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, L. Ma, H. Zhen, M. R. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

Ma, L.

S. Li, L. Ma, H. Zhen, M. R. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Mei, Y.

Mei, Y. F.

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mendach, S.

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mi, Z.

Mönch, I.

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, S.

Parsy, F.

Phillips, K. C.

Plant, D. V.

Quinones, V. A. B.

S. M. Harazim, V. A. B. Quinones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rastelli, A.

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rehberg, H.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reindl, T.

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reshef, O.

Sanchez, S.

S. M. Harazim, V. A. B. Quinones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O. G.

S. Böttner, S. Li, M. R. Jorgensen, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Harazim, V. A. B. Quinones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Böttner, S. Li, J. Trommer, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 37, 5136 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, L. Ma, H. Zhen, M. R. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Schmidt and K. Eberl, Nature 410, 168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, C. M.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Y. Yamamoto and R. E. Slusher, Phys. Today 46(6), 66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Solovev, A. A.

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Songmuang, R.

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strelow, C.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Trommer, J.

Ureña, E. B.

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veerasubramanian, V.

Wang, J.

Welsch, H.

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto and R. E. Slusher, Phys. Today 46(6), 66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, T.

Zhen, H.

S. Li, L. Ma, H. Zhen, M. R. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Q.

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. F. Mei, G. Huang, A. A. Solovev, E. B. Ureña, I. Mönch, F. Ding, T. Reindl, R. K. Y. Fu, P. K. Chu, and O. G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 20, 4085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Li, L. Ma, H. Zhen, M. R. Jorgensen, S. Kiravittaya, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 231106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Songmuang, A. Rastelli, S. Mendach, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Böttner, S. Li, M. R. Jorgensen, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

S. M. Harazim, V. A. B. Quinones, S. Kiravittaya, S. Sanchez, and O. G. Schmidt, Lab Chip 12, 2649 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

O. G. Schmidt and K. Eberl, Nature 410, 168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 127403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kipp, H. Welsch, C. Strelow, C. Heyn, and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

Y. Yamamoto and R. E. Slusher, Phys. Today 46(6), 66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of a TiO2 VRUM. The outline of the U-shaped pattern is visible in the background. (b)–(d) Magnification of the center bridge-like part of the microtube and both ends with very tight symmetric rolling.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a), (b) AFM measurement of the outer and inner polycrystalline TiO2 tube wall, respectively, and (c) Raman spectrum of a TiO2 thin film.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photoluminescence spectrum of a TiO2 VRUM. Resonances including fundamental modes and axial modes on top of the background are visible.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized fiber transmission signal while coupled to the center lobe part of one of the thicker ends. Multiple resonance modes are visible, including three major fundamental mode dips (red dashed line), and axial modes are also visible (green dashed line). Calculated mode positions are indicated by red triangles. Inset: the fundamental modes have a fine splitting with Q factors up to 7.7×103.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized fiber transmission signal while coupled to a different area on one of the thicker ends of the VRUM for two orthogonal incoming polarization states. Calculated mode positions are indicated by blue triangles. Inset: the cavity mode at 1539.34 nm has a line width of 0.9 nm and a Q factor of 1.7×103.

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