Abstract

We developed a compact, optical fiber scanning piezoelectric transducer (PZT) probe for endoscopic and minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with previous forward-mount fiber designs, we present a reverse-mount design that achieves a shorter rigid length. The fiber was mounted at the proximal end of a quadruple PZT tube and scanned inside the hollow PZT tube to reduce the probe length. The fiber resonant frequency was 338 Hz using a 17-mm-long fiber. A 0.9 mm fiber deflection was achieved with a driving amplitude of 35 V. Using a GRIN lens-based optical design with a 1.3× magnification, a 6μm spot was scanned over a 1.2 mm diameter field. The probe was encased in a metal hypodermic tube with a 25mm rigid length and covered with a 3.2 mm outer diameter (OD) plastic sheath. Imaging was performed with a swept source OCT system based on a Fourier domain modelocked laser (FDML) light source at a 240 kHz axial scan rate and 8 μm axial resolution (in air). En face OCT imaging of skin in vivo and human colon ex vivo was demonstrated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

2010

2008

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastroint. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2002

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, A. D.

Bachman, M.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastroint. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. C.

Chen, Y. P.

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

Cobb, M. J.

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

T. Tsai, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, Y. K. Tao, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2438 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Aguirre, J. Sawinski, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, W. Denk, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 18, 4222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, K. Schneider, P. Hsiung, J. G. Fujimoto, K. Madden, J. Schmitt, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, Opt. Lett. 29, 2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goodnow, J.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S. G.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herz, P. R.

Hornegger, J.

Hsiung, P.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. W.

Huber, R.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huo, L.

Jeong, K. H.

Jeong, Y.

Kang, M.

Kimmey, M. B.

Kraus, M. F.

Lauwers, G. Y.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastroint. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-W.

Li, G. P.

Li, M. J.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. M.

Madden, K.

Mino-Kenudson, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastroint. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.

Murari, K.

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastroint. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. C.

Petersen, C.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rubinstein, M.

Sawinski, J.

A. D. Aguirre, J. Sawinski, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, W. Denk, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 18, 4222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sawinski, “Development of a head-mount fiber scanning system for imaging in vivo,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, 2005).

Schmitt, J.

Schneider, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seibel, E. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastroint. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, C.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastroint. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastroint. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T.

Vakoc, B. J.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastroint. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. L.

Wong, B. J. F.

Wu, Y. C.

Xi, J. F.

Yachimski, P. S.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastroint. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Y.

Zhou, C.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Gastroint. Endosc.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, Gastroint. Endosc. 68, 745 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Sawinski, “Development of a head-mount fiber scanning system for imaging in vivo,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic, (b) cross-sectional view, and (c) photo of reverse-mount probe.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Fiber deflection range versus lever arm length. (b) The frequency response of reverse-mount and forward-mount probes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Microscope photo of test grid pattern. (b) En face OCT image of the test grid pattern. (c) En face OCT image of a USAF resolution chart. The scale bars are 500 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) OCT image of human finger. (b) En face images at depths of 120–300 μm, 60 μm apart. SC, stratum corneum; SS, stratum spinosum; SD, sweat duct. Scale bars 500 μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Freshly excised human colon. (a) En face OCT image at 90μm depth. (b) Representative histology with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. Scale bar 500 μm.

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