Abstract

Optical-resolution photoacoustic flowmetry (PAF) allows noninvasive single-cell flow measurements. However, its operational depth is limited by optical diffusion, which prevents focusing beyond shallow depths in scattering media, as well as reducing the measurement signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To overcome this limitation, we used binary-amplitude wavefront shaping to enhance light focusing in the presence of scattering. Here, the transmission modes that contributed constructively to the intensity at the optical focus were identified and selectively illuminated, resulting in a 14-fold intensity increase and a corresponding increase in SNR. This technique can potentially extend the operational depth of optical-resolution PAF beyond 1 mm in tissue.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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