Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel interferometric approach to generate arbitrary cylindrical vector beams on the higher order Poincaré sphere (HOPS). Our scheme is implemented by collinear superposition of two orthogonal circular polarizations with opposite topological charges. By modifying the amplitude and phase factors of the two beams, respectively, any desired vector beams on the HOPS with high tunability can be acquired. Our research provides a convenient way to evolve the polarization states in any path on the high order Poincaré sphere.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

H. Ye, C. Wan, K. Huang, T. Han, J. Teng, Y. S. Ping, and C. Qiu, Opt. Lett. 39, 630 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).

2013

2012

F. Cardano, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, C. de Lisio, and E. Santamato, Appl. Opt. 51, C1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Ling, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Phys. Rev. A 86, 053824 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Holleczek, A. Aiello, C. Gabriel, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Express 1012, 4578 (2010).

2009

2007

2006

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan, Opt. Lett. 31, 867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2002

2000

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesemt, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).

1996

1992

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, A.

A. Holleczek, A. Aiello, C. Gabriel, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Express 1012, 4578 (2010).

Alfano, R. R.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bernet, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biener, G.

Blit, S.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesemt, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).

Bomzon, Z.

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesemt, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1997).

Cardano, F.

Chen, L.

Cheng, W.

Davidson, N.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesemt, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).

de Lisio, C.

Deng, D.

Ding, J.

Evans, S.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Friesemt, A. A.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesemt, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).

Fürhapter, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gabriel, C.

A. Holleczek, A. Aiello, C. Gabriel, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Express 1012, 4578 (2010).

Guo, C. S.

Guo, Q.

Han, T.

Han, W.

Hasman, E.

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesemt, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).

Holleczek, A.

A. Holleczek, A. Aiello, C. Gabriel, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Express 1012, 4578 (2010).

Huang, K.

Jackel, S.

Jesacher, A.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karimi, E.

Kleiner, V.

Kozawa, Y.

Leuchs, G.

A. Holleczek, A. Aiello, C. Gabriel, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Express 1012, 4578 (2010).

Levy, U.

Ling, X.

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).

X. Ling, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Phys. Rev. A 86, 053824 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).

Lumer, Y.

Luo, H.

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).

X. Ling, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Phys. Rev. A 86, 053824 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Machavariani, G.

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, C.

A. Holleczek, A. Aiello, C. Gabriel, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Express 1012, 4578 (2010).

Marrucci, L.

Maurer, C.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meir, A.

Milione, G.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moshe, I.

Ni, W. J.

Nolan, D. A.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oron, R.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesemt, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).

Pang, L.

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ping, Y. S.

Qiu, C.

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salamin, Y. I.

Santamato, E.

Sato, S.

Schadt, M.

She, W.

Slussarenko, S.

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, M.

Sztul, H. I.

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Teng, J.

Tsai, C.

Wan, C.

Wang, H. T.

Wang, S.

Wang, X. L.

Wen, S.

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).

X. Ling, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Phys. Rev. A 86, 053824 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1997).

Xie, X.

Yang, L.

Yang, Y.

Ye, H.

Yi, X.

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).

Zhan, Q.

Zhou, J.

Zhou, X.

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).

X. Ling, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Phys. Rev. A 86, 053824 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesemt, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).

Y. Liu, X. Ling, X. Yi, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191110 (2014).

New J. Phys.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. Ling, X. Zhou, H. Luo, and S. Wen, Phys. Rev. A 86, 053824 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustrating of the first-order Poincaré sphere (=+1). The points A, B, C, and D represent four types of vector beams. The transformations corresponding to the paths AB, AC, and AD are illustrated by the red curve with arrows. The insets show the intensity distribution and the polarization vector (green arrows).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup: Gaussian beam generated by a He–Ne laser (632.8 nm, Thorlabs HNL210L-EC) passes through a HWP and a Glan laser polarizer (GLP) to produce a horizontally polarized beam. Then the fundamental Gaussian beam is transformed into a vortex-bearing LG01 mode by a spatial light modulator (SLM) (Holoeye Pluto-Vis). The modified Mach–Zender interferometer comprised of two cascaded beam splitters (BSs) and an odd number of reflections can convert the LG01 mode into an LG01 mode. In addition, we add PP1 and PP2 (two cascaded GLPs of which the second one is fixed) in each arm of the interferometer to justify the intensity factors. HH (a pair of HWPs within which only the second one can be rotated) is added to modify the phase factors. QP consisting of QWP and GLP, is used to measure Stokes parameters. The intensity distribution of the field is detected by a CCD camera (Coherent LaserCam HR).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Stokes parameters of the generated vector beams corresponding to A and B on the first-order Poincaré sphere (Fig. 1). The first column shows the intensity distribution (S0) and the next three columns are the Stokes parameters S1, S2, and S3, respectively. The first and third rows are the theoretical results for A and B, respectively. The second and fourth rows show the experimental results A and B, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Stokes parameters of the generated vector beams corresponding to C and D on the first-order Poincaré sphere (Fig. 1). The first column shows the intensity distribution and the next three columns are the Stokes parameters S1, S2, and S3, respectively. The first and third rows are the theoretical results for C and D, respectively. The second and fourth rows show the corresponding experimental results.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ψ(υ,ϕ)=cos(υ2)eiϕ/2L+sin(υ2)eiϕ/2R.
α1=90°,cos2α2=tanυ2,
sin2α1=cotυ2,α2=0°,
β=ϕ/4,
S1=I0°0°I90°90°I0°0°+I90°90°,S2=I45°45°I135°135°I45°45°+I135°135°,S3=I0°135°I0°45°I0°135°+I0°45°,

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