Abstract

We propose an approach to realize polarization-independent etching of fused silica by using temporally shaped femtosecond pulse trains to control the localized transient electrons dynamics. Instead of nanograting formation using traditional unshaped pulses, for the pulse delay of pulse trains larger than 1 ps, coherent field-vector-related coupling is not possible and field orientation is lost. The exponential growth of the periodic structures is interrupted. In this case, disordered and interconnected nanostructures are formed, which is probably the main reason of etching independence on the laser polarization. As an application example, square-wave-shaped and arc-shaped microchannels are fabricated by using pulse trains to demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method in fabricating high-aspect-ratio and three-dimensional microchannels.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Forster, W. Kautek, N. Faure, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 4155 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, Opt. Express 17, 8685 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11560 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

G. M. Whitesides, Nature 442, 368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

M. Forster, W. Kautek, N. Faure, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 4155 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, N.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Express 11, 775 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bian, H.

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. G. He, F. Chen, K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, H. W. Liu, H. Bian, X. W. Meng, C. Shan, J. H. Si, Y. L. Zhao, and X. Hou, Opt. Lett. 37, 3825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, Opt. Express 17, 8685 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. G. He, F. Chen, K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, H. W. Liu, H. Bian, X. W. Meng, C. Shan, J. H. Si, Y. L. Zhao, and X. Hou, Opt. Lett. 37, 3825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. F.

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Express 11, 775 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y. P.

Du, G. Q.

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. L.

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Faure, N.

M. Forster, W. Kautek, N. Faure, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 4155 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Forster, M.

M. Forster, W. Kautek, N. Faure, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 4155 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, S.

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11560 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, K.-i.

He, S. G.

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. G. He, F. Chen, K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, H. W. Liu, H. Bian, X. W. Meng, C. Shan, J. H. Si, Y. L. Zhao, and X. Hou, Opt. Lett. 37, 3825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Express 11, 775 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Jiang, L.

Juodkazis, S.

Kautek, W.

M. Forster, W. Kautek, N. Faure, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 4155 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kiyama, S.

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11560 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leng, Y. X.

Li, L.

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. X.

Li, X.

Liu, H. W.

Liu, K. Y.

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. G. He, F. Chen, K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, H. W. Liu, H. Bian, X. W. Meng, C. Shan, J. H. Si, Y. L. Zhao, and X. Hou, Opt. Lett. 37, 3825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. H.

Lu, Y. F.

Marcinkevicius, A.

Matsuo, S.

Mehandale, M.

Meng, X. W.

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. G. He, F. Chen, K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, H. W. Liu, H. Bian, X. W. Meng, C. Shan, J. H. Si, Y. L. Zhao, and X. Hou, Opt. Lett. 37, 3825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

Morihira, Y.

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11560 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vishnubhatla, N. Bellini, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, Opt. Express 17, 8685 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Express 11, 775 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shan, C.

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. G. He, F. Chen, K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, H. W. Liu, H. Bian, X. W. Meng, C. Shan, J. H. Si, Y. L. Zhao, and X. Hou, Opt. Lett. 37, 3825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X. S.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Si, J. H.

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Express 11, 775 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

M. Forster, W. Kautek, N. Faure, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 4155 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 30, 1867 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Express 11, 775 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toma, T.

Vishnubhatla, K. C.

Wang, S. M.

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, W.

Whitesides, G. M.

G. M. Whitesides, Nature 442, 368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. H.

Xiong, H.

Xu, Z. Z.

Yamada, K.

Yang, Q.

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. G. He, F. Chen, K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, H. W. Liu, H. Bian, X. W. Meng, C. Shan, J. H. Si, Y. L. Zhao, and X. Hou, Opt. Lett. 37, 3825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y. P.

Zhao, Y. L.

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. G. He, F. Chen, K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, H. W. Liu, H. Bian, X. W. Meng, C. Shan, J. H. Si, Y. L. Zhao, and X. Hou, Opt. Lett. 37, 3825 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

S. Kiyama, S. Matsuo, S. Hashimoto, and Y. Morihira, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11560 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

K. Y. Liu, Q. Yang, Y. L. Zhao, F. Chen, C. Shan, S. G. He, X. L. Fan, L. Li, X. W. Meng, G. Q. Du, and H. Bian, Microelectron. Eng. 113, 93 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. M. Whitesides, Nature 442, 368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Forster, W. Kautek, N. Faure, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 4155 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. θ is the angle between the writing direction (x axis) and the electric vector of the fs beam, E. The light propagates along the z axis.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Plot of microchannel length against pulse delay after 1 h etching in 10% HF with θ=0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. The inset is a local enlargement in the pulse delay range of 0–500 fs. (b), (c) Optical images of microchannels by using pulse trains with delay of 0 and 1000 fs, channels from top to bottom are shown for θ=0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Top view SEM images of nanostructures formed in the modification zones for different pulse delays and polarizations: (a), (b) for Δt=0fs and (c), (d) for ΔT=1000fs. The arrows indicate the polarization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical images of microchannels after 1 h etching in 10% HF and a schematic diagram of the corresponding nanostructures formed after irradiation: (a), (b) for square-wave-shaped channels with a pulse delay of 0 fs, (c) for 1000 fs, (d) for arc-shaped channels with a pulse delay of 0 fs, and (e) for 1000 fs. The arrows indicate the place where the etching process terminated, and the double-headed arrows indicate the polarization.

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