Abstract

We demonstrate an ultra-compact silicon integrated photonic interferometer for swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The footprint of the integrated interferometer is only 0.75×5mm2. The design consists of three 2×2 splitters, a 13 cm physical length (50.4 cm optical length) reference arm, and grating couplers. The photonic integrated circuit was used as the interferometer of an SS-OCT system. The sensitivity of the system was measured to be 62dB with 115 μW power delivered to the sample. Using the system, we demonstrate cross-sectional OCT imaging of a layered tissue phantom. We also discuss potential improvements in passive silicon photonic integrated circuit design and integration with active components.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (4)

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739 (2010).
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S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, and Y. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

Akca, B. I.

Alex, A.

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, and Y. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bajraszewski, T.

Beeker, W.

Ben Bakir, B.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Vermeulen, Y. De Koninck, Y. Li, E. Lambert, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 20, 22278 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

Bourdelle, K.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

Bovington, J.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cailler, C.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. W.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, L.

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

de Gyves, A. V.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Heyn, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

De Koninck, Y.

de Ridder, R. M.

DeRose, C.

Drexler, W.

Duc Nguyen, V.

Duker, J.

Fang, A. W.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Georgas, M.

Green, W.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, and Y. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Heideman, R. G.

Hoekman, M.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

Jacob-Mitos, M.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kalkman, J.

Ko, T.

Koch, B. R.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

Lambert, E.

Leinse, A.

Lepage, G.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

Leu, J.

Li, H.

Li, Y.

Liang, D.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moss, B.

Nielson, G. N.

Ong, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

Orcutt, J. S.

Orobtchouk, R.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

Popovic, M.

Porzier, C.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Považay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

Rigny, A.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

Roelkens, G.

Roman, A.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rylyakov, A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, and Y. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, and Y. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S.

Selvaraja, S. K.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

Shainline, J.

Shi, W.

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

Srinivasan, V.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stojanovic, V.

Sun, C.

Sun, J.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sysak, M. N.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Tang, Y.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

Tsai, C. S.

Uroševic, S.

Van Campenhout, J.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

Vlasov, Y.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, and Y. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Weaver, M.

Weiss, N.

Winroth, G.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, K.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wörhoff, K.

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, and Y. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoda, H.

Young, R. W.

Yun, H.

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yurtsever, G.

Zabihian, B.

Zgraggen, E.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. Green, C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, and Y. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

N. Weiss, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, Phys. Rev. E 88, 042312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. K. Selvaraja, P. De Heyn, G. Winroth, P. Ong, G. Lepage, C. Cailler, A. Rigny, K. Bourdelle, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.33.

http://www.epixfab.eu/ .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the OCT setup with the photonic integrated circuit, pc: polarization controller; C1, C2, C3: 2×2 couplers. The direction of the light is indicated by red arrows. (b) Microscope image of the fabricated photonic integrated interferometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Interference fringe for a reflection from a mirror. (b) Fourier-transform of the interference signal, before (blue) and after (red) dispersion compensation. The peak of the blue line is normalized to 1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

OCT cross-sectional image (average of 100 B-scans) of a layered tissue phantom.

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