Abstract

We report on the first, to the best of our knowledge, continuous-wave quasi three-level lasers emitting in the cyan-blue spectral range in praseodymium-doped crystalline materials. Applying Pr3+:BaY2F8 as an active medium, up to 201 mW of output power at 495 nm could be obtained with a slope efficiency of 27% under pumping with an optically pumped semiconductor laser (2ω-OPSL) at 480 nm. In the same pumping scheme using Pr3+:LiYF4, output powers up to 70 mW were realized at 491 and 500 nm, respectively. With Pr3+:BaY2F8, diode-pumped laser operation with up to 11% slope efficiency and 44 mW output power was also achieved. In the latter case, detailed investigations on the temperature dependency of the laser output were conducted. Moreover, comparative experiments were carried out for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, with green-emitting Pr3+:BaY2F8 lasers at 524 and 553 nm both under diode and 2ω-OPSL excitation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Sandrock, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. B 58, 149 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Cornacchia, A. Richter, E. Heumann, G. Huber, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Express 15, 992 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, J. Bengoechea, and U. Weichmann, Opt. Lett. 32, 1462 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Pabœuf, O. Mhibik, F. Bretenaker, P. Goldner, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Lett. 36, 280 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. W. Metz, S. Müller, F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, F. Moglia, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, Opt. Express 21, 31274 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Danger, A. Bleckmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 58, 413 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Fechner, F. Reichert, N.-O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 102, 731 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, M. Kruer, F. Bartoli, L. S. Goldberg, H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, and V. O. Nicolai, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 650 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, Phys. Status Solidi A 140, K49 (1993).
  10. M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, R. Mahiou, and B. Jacquier, J. Phys. IV 4, C4 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. G. Smart, J. N. Carter, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Opt. Commun. 86, 333 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. B 69, 417 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Ostroumov and W. Seelert, Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711K (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, Opt. Lett. 36, 1002 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. W. Metz, D. Parisi, K. Hasse, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, M. Tonelli, and G. Huber, “Room temperature cyan Pr3+:BaY2F8 laser at 495 nm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Conference, Paris, 2013, paper AF2A.7.
  17. R. Hakim, K. Damak, A. Toncelli, M. Fourati, and R. Maalej, J. Lumin. 143, 233 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2011 (3)

2008 (1)

V. Ostroumov and W. Seelert, Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711K (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

1999 (1)

H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. B 69, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

T. Sandrock, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. B 58, 149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, R. Mahiou, and B. Jacquier, J. Phys. IV 4, C4 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Danger, A. Bleckmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 58, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, Phys. Status Solidi A 140, K49 (1993).

1991 (1)

R. G. Smart, J. N. Carter, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Opt. Commun. 86, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, M. Kruer, F. Bartoli, L. S. Goldberg, H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, and V. O. Nicolai, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R.

L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, M. Kruer, F. Bartoli, L. S. Goldberg, H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, and V. O. Nicolai, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F.

L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, M. Kruer, F. Bartoli, L. S. Goldberg, H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, and V. O. Nicolai, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bengoechea, J.

Bleckmann, A.

T. Danger, A. Bleckmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 58, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bludau, W.

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bretenaker, F.

Camy, P.

Carter, J. N.

R. G. Smart, J. N. Carter, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Opt. Commun. 86, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S. F.

R. G. Smart, J. N. Carter, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Opt. Commun. 86, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B. H. T.

T. Sandrock, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. B 58, 149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cornacchia, F.

Damak, K.

R. Hakim, K. Damak, A. Toncelli, M. Fourati, and R. Maalej, J. Lumin. 143, 233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Danger, T.

T. Sandrock, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. B 58, 149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Danger, A. Bleckmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 58, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Danielmeyer, H. G.

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

R. G. Smart, J. N. Carter, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Opt. Commun. 86, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

Esterowitz, L.

L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, M. Kruer, F. Bartoli, L. S. Goldberg, H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, and V. O. Nicolai, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fechner, M.

M. Fechner, F. Reichert, N.-O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 102, 731 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fourati, M.

R. Hakim, K. Damak, A. Toncelli, M. Fourati, and R. Maalej, J. Lumin. 143, 233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L. S.

L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, M. Kruer, F. Bartoli, L. S. Goldberg, H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, and V. O. Nicolai, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Goldner, P.

Gün, T.

Hakim, R.

R. Hakim, K. Damak, A. Toncelli, M. Fourati, and R. Maalej, J. Lumin. 143, 233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

R. G. Smart, J. N. Carter, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Opt. Commun. 86, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, N.-O.

M. Fechner, F. Reichert, N.-O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 102, 731 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Metz, D. Parisi, K. Hasse, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, M. Tonelli, and G. Huber, “Room temperature cyan Pr3+:BaY2F8 laser at 495 nm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Conference, Paris, 2013, paper AF2A.7.

Hasse, K.

P. W. Metz, D. Parisi, K. Hasse, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, M. Tonelli, and G. Huber, “Room temperature cyan Pr3+:BaY2F8 laser at 495 nm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Conference, Paris, 2013, paper AF2A.7.

Heumann, E.

F. Cornacchia, A. Richter, E. Heumann, G. Huber, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Express 15, 992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Sandrock, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. B 58, 149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Metz, S. Müller, F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, F. Moglia, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, Opt. Express 21, 31274 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, Opt. Lett. 36, 1002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fechner, F. Reichert, N.-O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 102, 731 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornacchia, A. Richter, E. Heumann, G. Huber, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Express 15, 992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Sandrock, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. B 58, 149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Danger, A. Bleckmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 58, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Metz, D. Parisi, K. Hasse, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, M. Tonelli, and G. Huber, “Room temperature cyan Pr3+:BaY2F8 laser at 495 nm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Conference, Paris, 2013, paper AF2A.7.

Jacquier, B.

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, R. Mahiou, and B. Jacquier, J. Phys. IV 4, C4 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, Phys. Status Solidi A 140, K49 (1993).

Jenssen, H. P.

L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, M. Kruer, F. Bartoli, L. S. Goldberg, H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, and V. O. Nicolai, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M. F.

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, R. Mahiou, and B. Jacquier, J. Phys. IV 4, C4 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, Phys. Status Solidi A 140, K49 (1993).

Kränkel, C.

P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Metz, S. Müller, F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, F. Moglia, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, Opt. Express 21, 31274 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Metz, D. Parisi, K. Hasse, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, M. Tonelli, and G. Huber, “Room temperature cyan Pr3+:BaY2F8 laser at 495 nm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Conference, Paris, 2013, paper AF2A.7.

Kruer, M.

L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, M. Kruer, F. Bartoli, L. S. Goldberg, H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, and V. O. Nicolai, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Krühler, W. W.

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Linz, A.

L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, M. Kruer, F. Bartoli, L. S. Goldberg, H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, and V. O. Nicolai, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Maalej, R.

R. Hakim, K. Damak, A. Toncelli, M. Fourati, and R. Maalej, J. Lumin. 143, 233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mahiou, R.

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, R. Mahiou, and B. Jacquier, J. Phys. IV 4, C4 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, M.

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, R. Mahiou, and B. Jacquier, J. Phys. IV 4, C4 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, Phys. Status Solidi A 140, K49 (1993).

Marzahl, D.-T.

Metz, P.

Metz, P. W.

P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Metz, S. Müller, F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, F. Moglia, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, Opt. Express 21, 31274 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Metz, D. Parisi, K. Hasse, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, M. Tonelli, and G. Huber, “Room temperature cyan Pr3+:BaY2F8 laser at 495 nm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Conference, Paris, 2013, paper AF2A.7.

Mhibik, O.

Moglia, F.

Moncorgé, R.

Müller, S.

Nicolai, V. O.

L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, M. Kruer, F. Bartoli, L. S. Goldberg, H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, and V. O. Nicolai, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V.

V. Ostroumov and W. Seelert, Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711K (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pabœuf, D.

Parisi, D.

D. Pabœuf, O. Mhibik, F. Bretenaker, P. Goldner, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Lett. 36, 280 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornacchia, A. Richter, E. Heumann, G. Huber, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Express 15, 992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Metz, D. Parisi, K. Hasse, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, M. Tonelli, and G. Huber, “Room temperature cyan Pr3+:BaY2F8 laser at 495 nm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Conference, Paris, 2013, paper AF2A.7.

Petermann, K.

M. Fechner, F. Reichert, N.-O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 102, 731 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, F.

Richter, A.

Riedel, P.

H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. B 69, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandrock, T.

T. Sandrock, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. B 58, 149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seelert, W.

V. Ostroumov and W. Seelert, Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711K (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smart, R. G.

R. G. Smart, J. N. Carter, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Opt. Commun. 86, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Szebesta, D.

R. G. Smart, J. N. Carter, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Opt. Commun. 86, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toncelli, A.

R. Hakim, K. Damak, A. Toncelli, M. Fourati, and R. Maalej, J. Lumin. 143, 233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

D. Pabœuf, O. Mhibik, F. Bretenaker, P. Goldner, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Lett. 36, 280 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornacchia, A. Richter, E. Heumann, G. Huber, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, Opt. Express 15, 992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Metz, D. Parisi, K. Hasse, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, M. Tonelli, and G. Huber, “Room temperature cyan Pr3+:BaY2F8 laser at 495 nm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Conference, Paris, 2013, paper AF2A.7.

Tropper, A. C.

R. G. Smart, J. N. Carter, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Opt. Commun. 86, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. B 69, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weichmann, U.

Zellmer, H.

H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. B 69, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

T. Danger, A. Bleckmann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 58, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Fechner, F. Reichert, N.-O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, Appl. Phys. B 102, 731 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. B 69, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Sandrock, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. B 58, 149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[CrossRef]

L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, M. Kruer, F. Bartoli, L. S. Goldberg, H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, and V. O. Nicolai, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

R. Hakim, K. Damak, A. Toncelli, M. Fourati, and R. Maalej, J. Lumin. 143, 233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV (1)

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, R. Mahiou, and B. Jacquier, J. Phys. IV 4, C4 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. G. Smart, J. N. Carter, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Opt. Commun. 86, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, Phys. Status Solidi A 140, K49 (1993).

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. Ostroumov and W. Seelert, Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711K (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. W. Metz, D. Parisi, K. Hasse, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, M. Tonelli, and G. Huber, “Room temperature cyan Pr3+:BaY2F8 laser at 495 nm,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Conference, Paris, 2013, paper AF2A.7.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Inversion-dependent gain cross sections for transitions into the ground-state manifold in Pr:BYF and Pr:YLF for different orientations of the electric field vector, E, and varying inversion levels, β.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the laser setup. Depending on the combination of the mirrors M1 and M2, up to two output channels were present.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Input–output characteristics of the investigated 2ω-OPSL pumped cyan-blue Pr3+ lasers. The cooling water had a temperature of 10°C in all cases. The straight lines mark the linear fits that were used to determine the slope efficiencies of the lasers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Input–output curves for diode-pumped Pr:BYF quasi-three-level lasers at 495 nm for different temperatures, T, and output coupler transmissions, TOC. The inset shows the threshold pump power, Pthr, and slope efficiency, ηsl, versus temperature, T. The straight lines mark the linear fits used to determine the slope efficiencies of the lasers.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Transition Cross Sections of Pr3+ between the H43 and the PJ3 Multiplets when Doped into the BYF and YLF Matricesa

Tables Icon

Table 2. Emission Wavelengths λem, Beam Quality Factor M2, Maximum Output Power Pmax, and Abbreviations of the Applied Pump Sources

Tables Icon

Table 3. Parameters of the Employed Crystals

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σgain=βσem(1β)σabs,

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