Abstract

We suggest a method to obtain a negative dispersion (ND) of birefringence using a two-dimensional self-organization of smectic liquid crystal (LC) and monomer molecules. The averaged orientation of the smectic LC was the layer normal direction with the extraordinary refractive index ne. Meanwhile, the orientation of the monomer molecules was templated by the host-smectic LC and parallel to the layer plane corresponding to the ordinary refractive index no. We selected the LC molecules absorbing a shorter wavelength of UV light rather than the polymerized monomers, hence ne was more smoothly decreased than no in the visible-wavelength range. Consequently, the birefringence Δnneno was increased with a longer wavelength, thus giving a ND of birefringence. Using the proposed method, the ND of birefringence could be obtained in a single layer, which is desirable for thin flexible applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Mattoussi, M. Srinviasarao, P. Kaatz, and G. C. Berry, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 69 (1992).
  2. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999), pp. 357–384.
  3. B. Bahadur, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 109, 3 (1984).
  4. S. Pancharatnam, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 41, 130 (1955).
  5. D. Clarke, Opt. Acta 14, 343 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Hariharan, Opt. Eng. 35, 3335 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y.-C. Yang and D.-K. Yang, Proc. SID Digest 39, 1955 (2008).
  8. S. Shen, J. She, and T. Tao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 961 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. K. Komanduri, K. F. Lawler, and M. J. Escuti, Opt. Express 21, 404 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Uchiyama and T. Yatabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 6941 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Uchiyama, Y. Ono, Y. Ikeda, H. Shuto, and K. Yahata, Poly. J. 44, 995 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kuboyama, T. Kuroda, and T. Ougizawa, Macromol. Symp. 249, 641 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Adlem, O. L. Parri, K. Skjonnemand, and D. Wikes, “Mesogenic dimers,” U.S. patent8,252,389 (August28, 2012).
  14. O. Parri, G. Smith, R. Harding, H.-J. Yoon, I. Gardiner, J. Sargent, and K. Skjonnemand, Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560W (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. A. Guymon, E. N. Hoggan, N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, D. M. Walba, and C. N. Bowman, Science 275, 57 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Dierking, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, T. Wittig, and R. Zentel, Liq. Cryst. 26, 1511 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. D. Sio, P. D’Aquila, E. Brunelli, G. Strangi, D. Bellizzi, G. Passarino, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Langmuir 29, 3398 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. D. Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 1176 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. L. Janning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J.-H. Lee and T.-H. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 083501 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J.-H. Lee and T.-K. Lim, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 094110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

R. K. Komanduri, K. F. Lawler, and M. J. Escuti, Opt. Express 21, 404 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Sio, P. D’Aquila, E. Brunelli, G. Strangi, D. Bellizzi, G. Passarino, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Langmuir 29, 3398 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 1176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee and T.-H. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

A. Uchiyama, Y. Ono, Y. Ikeda, H. Shuto, and K. Yahata, Poly. J. 44, 995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

O. Parri, G. Smith, R. Harding, H.-J. Yoon, I. Gardiner, J. Sargent, and K. Skjonnemand, Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560W (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y.-C. Yang and D.-K. Yang, Proc. SID Digest 39, 1955 (2008).

2007 (1)

K. Kuboyama, T. Kuroda, and T. Ougizawa, Macromol. Symp. 249, 641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J.-H. Lee and T.-K. Lim, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 094110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, J. She, and T. Tao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Uchiyama and T. Yatabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 6941 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

I. Dierking, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, T. Wittig, and R. Zentel, Liq. Cryst. 26, 1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. A. Guymon, E. N. Hoggan, N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, D. M. Walba, and C. N. Bowman, Science 275, 57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Hariharan, Opt. Eng. 35, 3335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Mattoussi, M. Srinviasarao, P. Kaatz, and G. C. Berry, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 69 (1992).

1984 (1)

B. Bahadur, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 109, 3 (1984).

1972 (1)

J. L. Janning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

D. Clarke, Opt. Acta 14, 343 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

S. Pancharatnam, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 41, 130 (1955).

Adlem, K.

K. Adlem, O. L. Parri, K. Skjonnemand, and D. Wikes, “Mesogenic dimers,” U.S. patent8,252,389 (August28, 2012).

Bahadur, B.

B. Bahadur, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 109, 3 (1984).

Bartolino, R.

L. D. Sio, P. D’Aquila, E. Brunelli, G. Strangi, D. Bellizzi, G. Passarino, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Langmuir 29, 3398 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 1176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bellizzi, D.

L. D. Sio, P. D’Aquila, E. Brunelli, G. Strangi, D. Bellizzi, G. Passarino, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Langmuir 29, 3398 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Berry, G. C.

H. Mattoussi, M. Srinviasarao, P. Kaatz, and G. C. Berry, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 69 (1992).

Bowman, C. N.

C. A. Guymon, E. N. Hoggan, N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, D. M. Walba, and C. N. Bowman, Science 275, 57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brunelli, E.

L. D. Sio, P. D’Aquila, E. Brunelli, G. Strangi, D. Bellizzi, G. Passarino, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Langmuir 29, 3398 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

C. A. Guymon, E. N. Hoggan, N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, D. M. Walba, and C. N. Bowman, Science 275, 57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, D.

D. Clarke, Opt. Acta 14, 343 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D’Aquila, P.

L. D. Sio, P. D’Aquila, E. Brunelli, G. Strangi, D. Bellizzi, G. Passarino, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Langmuir 29, 3398 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dierking, I.

I. Dierking, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, T. Wittig, and R. Zentel, Liq. Cryst. 26, 1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

Ferjani, S.

L. D. Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 1176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, I.

O. Parri, G. Smith, R. Harding, H.-J. Yoon, I. Gardiner, J. Sargent, and K. Skjonnemand, Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999), pp. 357–384.

Guymon, C. A.

C. A. Guymon, E. N. Hoggan, N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, D. M. Walba, and C. N. Bowman, Science 275, 57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harding, R.

O. Parri, G. Smith, R. Harding, H.-J. Yoon, I. Gardiner, J. Sargent, and K. Skjonnemand, Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan, Opt. Eng. 35, 3335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoggan, E. N.

C. A. Guymon, E. N. Hoggan, N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, D. M. Walba, and C. N. Bowman, Science 275, 57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, Y.

A. Uchiyama, Y. Ono, Y. Ikeda, H. Shuto, and K. Yahata, Poly. J. 44, 995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Janning, J. L.

J. L. Janning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kaatz, P.

H. Mattoussi, M. Srinviasarao, P. Kaatz, and G. C. Berry, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 69 (1992).

Komanduri, R. K.

Komitov, L.

I. Dierking, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, T. Wittig, and R. Zentel, Liq. Cryst. 26, 1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuboyama, K.

K. Kuboyama, T. Kuroda, and T. Ougizawa, Macromol. Symp. 249, 641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, T.

K. Kuboyama, T. Kuroda, and T. Ougizawa, Macromol. Symp. 249, 641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lagerwall, S. T.

I. Dierking, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, T. Wittig, and R. Zentel, Liq. Cryst. 26, 1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lawler, K. F.

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee and T.-H. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee and T.-K. Lim, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 094110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, T.-K.

J.-H. Lee and T.-K. Lim, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 094110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mattoussi, H.

H. Mattoussi, M. Srinviasarao, P. Kaatz, and G. C. Berry, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 69 (1992).

Ono, Y.

A. Uchiyama, Y. Ono, Y. Ikeda, H. Shuto, and K. Yahata, Poly. J. 44, 995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ougizawa, T.

K. Kuboyama, T. Kuroda, and T. Ougizawa, Macromol. Symp. 249, 641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pancharatnam, S.

S. Pancharatnam, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 41, 130 (1955).

Parri, O.

O. Parri, G. Smith, R. Harding, H.-J. Yoon, I. Gardiner, J. Sargent, and K. Skjonnemand, Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Parri, O. L.

K. Adlem, O. L. Parri, K. Skjonnemand, and D. Wikes, “Mesogenic dimers,” U.S. patent8,252,389 (August28, 2012).

Passarino, G.

L. D. Sio, P. D’Aquila, E. Brunelli, G. Strangi, D. Bellizzi, G. Passarino, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Langmuir 29, 3398 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rieker, T. P.

C. A. Guymon, E. N. Hoggan, N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, D. M. Walba, and C. N. Bowman, Science 275, 57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, J.

O. Parri, G. Smith, R. Harding, H.-J. Yoon, I. Gardiner, J. Sargent, and K. Skjonnemand, Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560W (2011).
[CrossRef]

She, J.

S. Shen, J. She, and T. Tao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

S. Shen, J. She, and T. Tao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shuto, H.

A. Uchiyama, Y. Ono, Y. Ikeda, H. Shuto, and K. Yahata, Poly. J. 44, 995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sio, L. D.

L. D. Sio, P. D’Aquila, E. Brunelli, G. Strangi, D. Bellizzi, G. Passarino, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Langmuir 29, 3398 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 1176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Skjonnemand, K.

O. Parri, G. Smith, R. Harding, H.-J. Yoon, I. Gardiner, J. Sargent, and K. Skjonnemand, Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560W (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Adlem, O. L. Parri, K. Skjonnemand, and D. Wikes, “Mesogenic dimers,” U.S. patent8,252,389 (August28, 2012).

Smith, G.

O. Parri, G. Smith, R. Harding, H.-J. Yoon, I. Gardiner, J. Sargent, and K. Skjonnemand, Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Srinviasarao, M.

H. Mattoussi, M. Srinviasarao, P. Kaatz, and G. C. Berry, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 69 (1992).

Strangi, G.

L. D. Sio, P. D’Aquila, E. Brunelli, G. Strangi, D. Bellizzi, G. Passarino, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Langmuir 29, 3398 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 1176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tao, T.

S. Shen, J. She, and T. Tao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, A.

A. Uchiyama, Y. Ono, Y. Ikeda, H. Shuto, and K. Yahata, Poly. J. 44, 995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Uchiyama and T. Yatabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 6941 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

L. D. Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 1176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Sio, P. D’Aquila, E. Brunelli, G. Strangi, D. Bellizzi, G. Passarino, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Langmuir 29, 3398 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Walba, D. M.

C. A. Guymon, E. N. Hoggan, N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, D. M. Walba, and C. N. Bowman, Science 275, 57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wikes, D.

K. Adlem, O. L. Parri, K. Skjonnemand, and D. Wikes, “Mesogenic dimers,” U.S. patent8,252,389 (August28, 2012).

Wittig, T.

I. Dierking, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, T. Wittig, and R. Zentel, Liq. Cryst. 26, 1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yahata, K.

A. Uchiyama, Y. Ono, Y. Ikeda, H. Shuto, and K. Yahata, Poly. J. 44, 995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.-K.

Y.-C. Yang and D.-K. Yang, Proc. SID Digest 39, 1955 (2008).

Yang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Yang and D.-K. Yang, Proc. SID Digest 39, 1955 (2008).

Yatabe, T.

A. Uchiyama and T. Yatabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 6941 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999), pp. 357–384.

Yoon, H.-J.

O. Parri, G. Smith, R. Harding, H.-J. Yoon, I. Gardiner, J. Sargent, and K. Skjonnemand, Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-H. Lee and T.-H. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zentel, R.

I. Dierking, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, T. Wittig, and R. Zentel, Liq. Cryst. 26, 1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. L. Janning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J.-H. Lee and T.-H. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee and T.-K. Lim, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 094110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

S. Shen, J. She, and T. Tao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

L. D. Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 1176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Uchiyama and T. Yatabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 6941 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

L. D. Sio, P. D’Aquila, E. Brunelli, G. Strangi, D. Bellizzi, G. Passarino, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Langmuir 29, 3398 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

I. Dierking, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, T. Wittig, and R. Zentel, Liq. Cryst. 26, 1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Symp. (1)

K. Kuboyama, T. Kuroda, and T. Ougizawa, Macromol. Symp. 249, 641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (2)

H. Mattoussi, M. Srinviasarao, P. Kaatz, and G. C. Berry, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 69 (1992).

B. Bahadur, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 109, 3 (1984).

Opt. Acta (1)

D. Clarke, Opt. Acta 14, 343 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Hariharan, Opt. Eng. 35, 3335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Poly. J. (1)

A. Uchiyama, Y. Ono, Y. Ikeda, H. Shuto, and K. Yahata, Poly. J. 44, 995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A (1)

S. Pancharatnam, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 41, 130 (1955).

Proc. SID Digest (1)

Y.-C. Yang and D.-K. Yang, Proc. SID Digest 39, 1955 (2008).

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. Parri, G. Smith, R. Harding, H.-J. Yoon, I. Gardiner, J. Sargent, and K. Skjonnemand, Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

C. A. Guymon, E. N. Hoggan, N. A. Clark, T. P. Rieker, D. M. Walba, and C. N. Bowman, Science 275, 57 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. Adlem, O. L. Parri, K. Skjonnemand, and D. Wikes, “Mesogenic dimers,” U.S. patent8,252,389 (August28, 2012).

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999), pp. 357–384.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of the wavelength λ dependence of ne and no in the (a) positive and (b) negative dispersion of Δn medium. (c) Suggested 2D self-organization of the smectic LC and monomers showing negative dispersion of Δn.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Chemical structure of the monomers and photoinitiator. (b) Absorption spectra of the pure LC and the UV-polymerized monomers–photoinitiator mixture.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Retardation α versus λ for the pure LC and LC–monomer mixture samples with various concentrations of the monomers at 25°C. (b) α(λ) normalized to α value at λ=550nm, α(550).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) SAXS intensity of the pure LC and 38 wt. % monomers-mixed LC versus 2θ. (b) IR absorption intensity of the biphenyl stretching of LC at 1600cm1 and CO bond of triallyl at 1690cm1 versus rotation angle of the polarization direction of the input IR light. The data were taken at 25°C.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

POM images of the samples with various monomer concentrations (a), (h) 0, (b), (i) 13, (c), (j), 22, (d), (k), 27, (e), (l), 34, (f), (m), 38, and (g), (n) 42 wt. %. (a)–(g) were taken when the rubbing direction was parallel to the polarizer. (h)–(n) were taken when the rubbing direction was at 45° to the polarizer. The pictures were taken at 25°C. Scale bars correspond to 100 μm.

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