Abstract

We observe strong modal coupling between the TE00 and TM00 modes in Si3N4 ring resonators revealed by avoided crossings of the corresponding resonances. Such couplings result in significant shifts of the resonance frequencies over a wide range around the crossing points. This leads to an effective dispersion that is one order of magnitude larger than the intrinsic dispersion and creates broad windows of anomalous dispersion. We also observe the changes to frequency comb spectra generated in Si3N4 microresonators due to polarization mode and higher-order mode crossings and suggest approaches to avoid these effects. Alternatively, such polarization mode crossings can be used as a tool for dispersion engineering in microresonators.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

2013

2012

2011

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 19, 14233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 36, 3398 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 36, 2290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, Phys. Rev. A 84, 053833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Carmon, H. G. L. Schwefel, L. Yang, M. Oxborrow, A. D. Stone, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

1998

Aiello, A.

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aspelmeyer, M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, S. Gröblacher, J. T. Hill, J. Chan, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, Nature 500, 185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” arXiv:1303.0733 (2013).

Azzini, S.

Baets, R. G.

Bajoni, D.

Baumgartel, L.

Bogaerts, W.

Brasch, V.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1311.1716 (2013).

Carmon, T.

T. Carmon, H. G. L. Schwefel, L. Yang, M. Oxborrow, A. D. Stone, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caspani, L.

Chan, J.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, S. Gröblacher, J. T. Hill, J. Chan, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, Nature 500, 185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chekhova, M. V.

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode interaction aided soft excitation of dark solitons in normal dispersion microresonators and offset-frequency tunable Kerr combs,” arXiv:1404.2865 (2014).

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, A. J. Metcalf, S. Chen, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode interaction in optical microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” arXiv:1402.5686 (2014).

Chu, S. T.

Clemmen, S.

S. Clemmen, K. Phan Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. G. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, Opt. Express 17, 16558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Clemmen, A. Farsi, J. Levy, L. Helt, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, in Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science XXVII, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper FThE5.

Clerici, M.

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, Phys. Rev. A 84, 053833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dutt, A.

A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” arXiv: 1309.6371 (2013).

Emplit, Ph.

Farsi, A.

S. Clemmen, A. Farsi, J. Levy, L. Helt, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, in Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science XXVII, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper FThE5.

Ferdous, F.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, M.

Förtsch, M.

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Fürst, J.

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fürst, J. U.

Gaeta, A. L.

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 21, 1335 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 19, 14233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 36, 3398 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Clemmen, A. Farsi, J. Levy, L. Helt, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, in Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science XXVII, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper FThE5.

A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” arXiv: 1309.6371 (2013).

Galli, M.

Gavartin, E.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1311.1716 (2013).

Grassani, D.

Gröblacher, S.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, S. Gröblacher, J. T. Hill, J. Chan, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, Nature 500, 185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I. S.

Hartinger, K.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hauer, M.

Helt, L.

S. Clemmen, A. Farsi, J. Levy, L. Helt, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, in Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science XXVII, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper FThE5.

Helt, L. G.

Herr, T.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1311.1716 (2013).

Hill, J. T.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, S. Gröblacher, J. T. Hill, J. Chan, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, Nature 500, 185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hirono, T.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-W.

S.-W. Huang, J. F. McMillan, J. Yang, A. Matsko, H. Zhou, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Direct generation of 74-fs mode-locking from on-chip normal dispersion frequency combs,” arXiv:1404.3256 (2014).

Huang, W.

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jiang, W. C.

W. C. Jiang, X. Lu, J. Zhang, O. Painter, and Q. Lin, “A silicon-chip source of bright photon-pair comb,” arXiv:1210.4455 (2012).

Johnson, A. R.

Jost, J. D.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1311.1716 (2013).

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 27, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” arXiv:1303.0733 (2013).

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1311.1716 (2013).

Kues, M.

Kumar, R.

Kuzucu, O.

Kwong, D.-L.

S.-W. Huang, J. F. McMillan, J. Yang, A. Matsko, H. Zhou, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Direct generation of 74-fs mode-locking from on-chip normal dispersion frequency combs,” arXiv:1404.3256 (2014).

Lamont, M. R. E.

Leaird, D. E.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode interaction aided soft excitation of dark solitons in normal dispersion microresonators and offset-frequency tunable Kerr combs,” arXiv:1404.2865 (2014).

Leuchs, G.

F. Sedlmeir, M. Hauer, J. U. Fürst, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, Opt. Express 21, 23942 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J.

S. Clemmen, A. Farsi, J. Levy, L. Helt, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, in Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science XXVII, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper FThE5.

Levy, J. S.

Liang, W.

Lihachev, G.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1311.1716 (2013).

Lin, Q.

W. C. Jiang, X. Lu, J. Zhang, O. Painter, and Q. Lin, “A silicon-chip source of bright photon-pair comb,” arXiv:1210.4455 (2012).

Lipson, M.

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 21, 1335 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 36, 3398 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 19, 14233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Clemmen, A. Farsi, J. Levy, L. Helt, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, in Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science XXVII, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper FThE5.

A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” arXiv: 1309.6371 (2013).

Liscidini, M.

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, L. G. Helt, J. E. Sipe, M. Liscidini, M. Galli, and D. Bajoni, Opt. Express 20, 23100 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Clemmen, A. Farsi, J. Levy, L. Helt, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, in Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science XXVII, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper FThE5.

Little, B. E.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, A. J. Metcalf, S. Chen, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode interaction in optical microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” arXiv:1402.5686 (2014).

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode interaction aided soft excitation of dark solitons in normal dispersion microresonators and offset-frequency tunable Kerr combs,” arXiv:1404.2865 (2014).

Lu, X.

W. C. Jiang, X. Lu, J. Zhang, O. Painter, and Q. Lin, “A silicon-chip source of bright photon-pair comb,” arXiv:1210.4455 (2012).

Lui, W. W.

Luke, K.

A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” arXiv: 1309.6371 (2013).

Maleki, L.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Opt. Express 20, 27290 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 36, 2290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Huang, J. F. McMillan, J. Yang, A. Matsko, H. Zhou, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Direct generation of 74-fs mode-locking from on-chip normal dispersion frequency combs,” arXiv:1404.3256 (2014).

Manipatruni, S.

A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” arXiv: 1309.6371 (2013).

Marquardt, C.

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” arXiv:1303.0733 (2013).

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A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Lett. 29, 2785 (2004).
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F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 4, p. 261.

Massar, S.

Matsko, A.

S.-W. Huang, J. F. McMillan, J. Yang, A. Matsko, H. Zhou, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Direct generation of 74-fs mode-locking from on-chip normal dispersion frequency combs,” arXiv:1404.3256 (2014).

Matsko, A. B.

McMillan, J. F.

S.-W. Huang, J. F. McMillan, J. Yang, A. Matsko, H. Zhou, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Direct generation of 74-fs mode-locking from on-chip normal dispersion frequency combs,” arXiv:1404.3256 (2014).

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A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Lett. 29, 2785 (2004).
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F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 4, p. 261.

Metcalf, A. J.

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, A. J. Metcalf, S. Chen, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode interaction in optical microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” arXiv:1402.5686 (2014).

Miao, H.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 5, 770 (2011).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1311.1716 (2013).

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A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Lett. 29, 2785 (2004).
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F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 4, p. 261.

Moss, D. J.

Nussenzveig, P.

A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” arXiv: 1309.6371 (2013).

Okawachi, Y.

Ong, J. R.

Oxborrow, M.

T. Carmon, H. G. L. Schwefel, L. Yang, M. Oxborrow, A. D. Stone, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, S. Gröblacher, J. T. Hill, J. Chan, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, Nature 500, 185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Jiang, X. Lu, J. Zhang, O. Painter, and Q. Lin, “A silicon-chip source of bright photon-pair comb,” arXiv:1210.4455 (2012).

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Papp, S. B.

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, Phys. Rev. A 84, 053833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pasquazi, A.

Peccianti, M.

Phan Huy, K.

Qi, M.

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, A. J. Metcalf, S. Chen, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode interaction in optical microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” arXiv:1402.5686 (2014).

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode interaction aided soft excitation of dark solitons in normal dispersion microresonators and offset-frequency tunable Kerr combs,” arXiv:1404.2865 (2014).

Rahman, B. M. A.

Razzari, L.

Recchio, J.

Reimer, C.

Riemensberger, J.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
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Safavi-Naeini, A. H.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, S. Gröblacher, J. T. Hill, J. Chan, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, Nature 500, 185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Saha, K.

Salem, R.

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
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F. Sedlmeir, M. Hauer, J. U. Fürst, G. Leuchs, and H. G. L. Schwefel, Opt. Express 21, 23942 (2013).
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T. Carmon, H. G. L. Schwefel, L. Yang, M. Oxborrow, A. D. Stone, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103905 (2008).
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Sedlmeir, F.

Seidel, D.

Shim, B.

Silberhorn, C.

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
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Sipe, J.

S. Clemmen, A. Farsi, J. Levy, L. Helt, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, in Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science XXVII, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper FThE5.

Sipe, J. E.

Solomatine, I.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093902 (2008).
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R. Kumar, J. R. Ong, J. Recchio, K. Srinivasan, and S. Mookherjea, Opt. Lett. 38, 2969 (2013).
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F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 5, 770 (2011).
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T. Carmon, H. G. L. Schwefel, L. Yang, M. Oxborrow, A. D. Stone, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103905 (2008).
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Strekalov, D.

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
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T. Carmon, H. G. L. Schwefel, L. Yang, M. Oxborrow, A. D. Stone, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103905 (2008).
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T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
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F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode interaction aided soft excitation of dark solitons in normal dispersion microresonators and offset-frequency tunable Kerr combs,” arXiv:1404.2865 (2014).

Wang, P.-H.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode interaction aided soft excitation of dark solitons in normal dispersion microresonators and offset-frequency tunable Kerr combs,” arXiv:1404.2865 (2014).

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, A. J. Metcalf, S. Chen, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode interaction in optical microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” arXiv:1402.5686 (2014).

Weiner, A. M.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, A. J. Metcalf, S. Chen, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode interaction in optical microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” arXiv:1402.5686 (2014).

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode interaction aided soft excitation of dark solitons in normal dispersion microresonators and offset-frequency tunable Kerr combs,” arXiv:1404.2865 (2014).

Wen, Y. H.

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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, C.

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

S.-W. Huang, J. F. McMillan, J. Yang, A. Matsko, H. Zhou, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Direct generation of 74-fs mode-locking from on-chip normal dispersion frequency combs,” arXiv:1404.3256 (2014).

Xuan, Y.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode interaction aided soft excitation of dark solitons in normal dispersion microresonators and offset-frequency tunable Kerr combs,” arXiv:1404.2865 (2014).

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, A. J. Metcalf, S. Chen, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode interaction in optical microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” arXiv:1402.5686 (2014).

Xue, X.

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, A. J. Metcalf, S. Chen, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode interaction in optical microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” arXiv:1402.5686 (2014).

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode interaction aided soft excitation of dark solitons in normal dispersion microresonators and offset-frequency tunable Kerr combs,” arXiv:1404.2865 (2014).

Yang, J.

S.-W. Huang, J. F. McMillan, J. Yang, A. Matsko, H. Zhou, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Direct generation of 74-fs mode-locking from on-chip normal dispersion frequency combs,” arXiv:1404.3256 (2014).

Yang, L.

T. Carmon, H. G. L. Schwefel, L. Yang, M. Oxborrow, A. D. Stone, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, K.

Yu, M.

S.-W. Huang, J. F. McMillan, J. Yang, A. Matsko, H. Zhou, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Direct generation of 74-fs mode-locking from on-chip normal dispersion frequency combs,” arXiv:1404.3256 (2014).

Yu, N.

Zhang, J.

W. C. Jiang, X. Lu, J. Zhang, O. Painter, and Q. Lin, “A silicon-chip source of bright photon-pair comb,” arXiv:1210.4455 (2012).

Zhou, H.

S.-W. Huang, J. F. McMillan, J. Yang, A. Matsko, H. Zhou, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Direct generation of 74-fs mode-locking from on-chip normal dispersion frequency combs,” arXiv:1404.3256 (2014).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Commun.

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photonics 5, 770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, S. Gröblacher, J. T. Hill, J. Chan, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, Nature 500, 185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, Phys. Rev. A 84, 053833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Carmon, H. G. L. Schwefel, L. Yang, M. Oxborrow, A. D. Stone, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, Science 321, 1172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” arXiv:1303.0733 (2013).

S. Clemmen, A. Farsi, J. Levy, L. Helt, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, in Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science XXVII, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper FThE5.

W. C. Jiang, X. Lu, J. Zhang, O. Painter, and Q. Lin, “A silicon-chip source of bright photon-pair comb,” arXiv:1210.4455 (2012).

A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” arXiv: 1309.6371 (2013).

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode interaction aided soft excitation of dark solitons in normal dispersion microresonators and offset-frequency tunable Kerr combs,” arXiv:1404.2865 (2014).

S.-W. Huang, J. F. McMillan, J. Yang, A. Matsko, H. Zhou, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Direct generation of 74-fs mode-locking from on-chip normal dispersion frequency combs,” arXiv:1404.3256 (2014).

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” arXiv:1311.1716 (2013).

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, A. J. Metcalf, S. Chen, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode interaction in optical microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” arXiv:1402.5686 (2014).

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 4, p. 261.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the setup used for observing and characterizing polarization mode coupling in mircoresonators on a temperature stabilized (T) silicon chip. (b), (c) SEM images of the microresonators and the coupling regions with the bus waveguides for (b) the 1.8 mm long microresonator and (c) a 100 μm radius ring resonator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical transmission for TM00 polarized light and selected resonances (a)–(e) in detail for TM00 (blue) and TE00 (orange). The appearance of the TE00 resonances for TM00 polarized input (and vice versa) and their behavior indicate an avoided crossing near 1595 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarization avoided crossings for two Si3N4 microrings with 725nm×1100nm cross section [(a)–(c)] and 725nm×900nm cross section [(d)–(f)]. (a), (d) Measured resonance frequencies ν of the TE00 and TM00 modes parameterized by their relative mode number μ, a constant FSR0=226GHz, and an offset frequency of ν0=c/1509.2nm for (a) and ν0=c/1456.4nm for (d). The solid lines show the theoretical TE00 and TM00 resonance frequencies based on simulations of the eigenmodes inside the resonator without accounting for the modal interaction. (b), (e) Measured FSRs (dotted lines), fits to the measured data (solid lines), and the simulation results. (c), (f) Experimentally determined effective GVD (dotted lines) derived from the fits to the measured data in (b) and (e), respectively, and simulation results yielding the intrinsic GVD (solid lines).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Generated comb spectra in Si3N4 microresonators. Insets show the measured FSRs with the (upper) blue branch being for the TE00 mode and revealing the mode crossings. (a) Results for a 725nm×1650nm cross section, 100 μm radius microring resonator. A polarization mode crossing (pol) occurs near 1580 nm with a corresponding feature (indicated by an arrow) in the comb spectrum. A second anomaly in the FSRs near 1550 nm due to a mode crossing with a higher-order spatial mode (hom) also produces a corresponding feature in the spectrum. (b) Results for a 725nm×1700nm cross section, 1.8 mm length microresonator. A number of polarization and higher-order mode crossings affect the generated comb spectrum.

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