Abstract

Burning aluminized propellants eject reacting molten aluminum drops with a broad size distribution. Prior to this work, in situ measurement of the drop size statistics and other quantitative flow properties was complicated by the narrow depth-of-focus of microscopic videography. Here, digital in-line holography (DIH) is demonstrated for quantitative volumetric imaging of the propellant plume. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in-focus features, including burning surfaces, drop morphologies, and reaction zones, are automatically measured through a depth spanning many millimeters. By quantifying all drops within the line of sight, DIH provides an order of magnitude increase in the effective data rate compared to traditional imaging. This enables rapid quantification of the drop size distribution with limited experimental repetition.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. W. Price and R. K. Sigman, in Solid Propellant Chemistry, Combustion, and Motor Interior Ballistics (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2000), pp. 663–687.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Gao, D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, Opt. Express 21, 26432 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2014

D. R. Guildenbecher, L. Engvall, J. Gao, T. W. Grasser, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, Exp. Fluids 55, 1670 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

2011

F. Cauty, C. Erades, and J.-M. Desse, Prog. Propul. Phys. 2, 121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Katz and J. Sheng, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 531 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

T. L. Jackson, F. Najjar, and J. Buckmaster, J. Propul. Power 21, 925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. V. Karasev, A. A. Onischuk, O. G. Glotov, A. M. Baklanov, A. G. Maryasov, V. E. Zarko, V. N. Panfilov, A. I. Levykin, and K. K. Sabelfeld, Combust. Flame 138, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. C. Melcher, H. Krier, and R. L. Bourton, J. Propul. Power 18, 631 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. Laredo, J. I. McCrorie, J. K. Vaughn, and D. W. Netzer, J. Propul. Power 10, 410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Laredo and D. W. Netzer, Part. Sci. Technol. 11, 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. P. Powers and D. W. Netzer, Proc. SPIE 1667, 136 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, C.

N. A. Buchmann, C. Atkinson, and J. Soria, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 024005 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baklanov, A. M.

V. V. Karasev, A. A. Onischuk, O. G. Glotov, A. M. Baklanov, A. G. Maryasov, V. E. Zarko, V. N. Panfilov, A. I. Levykin, and K. K. Sabelfeld, Combust. Flame 138, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bourton, R. L.

J. C. Melcher, H. Krier, and R. L. Bourton, J. Propul. Power 18, 631 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buchmann, N. A.

N. A. Buchmann, C. Atkinson, and J. Soria, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 024005 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Buckmaster, J.

T. L. Jackson, F. Najjar, and J. Buckmaster, J. Propul. Power 21, 925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cauty, F.

F. Cauty, C. Erades, and J.-M. Desse, Prog. Propul. Phys. 2, 121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Desse, J.-M.

F. Cauty, C. Erades, and J.-M. Desse, Prog. Propul. Phys. 2, 121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, B. A.

J. L. Height, B. A. Donaldson, W. Gill, and C. G. Parigger, in Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (2011), pp. 1409–1414.

Engvall, L.

D. R. Guildenbecher, L. Engvall, J. Gao, T. W. Grasser, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, Exp. Fluids 55, 1670 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Erades, C.

F. Cauty, C. Erades, and J.-M. Desse, Prog. Propul. Phys. 2, 121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

Gill, W.

J. L. Height, B. A. Donaldson, W. Gill, and C. G. Parigger, in Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (2011), pp. 1409–1414.

Glotov, O. G.

V. V. Karasev, A. A. Onischuk, O. G. Glotov, A. M. Baklanov, A. G. Maryasov, V. E. Zarko, V. N. Panfilov, A. I. Levykin, and K. K. Sabelfeld, Combust. Flame 138, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grasser, T. W.

D. R. Guildenbecher, L. Engvall, J. Gao, T. W. Grasser, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, Exp. Fluids 55, 1670 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Guildenbecher, D. R.

Height, J. L.

J. L. Height, B. A. Donaldson, W. Gill, and C. G. Parigger, in Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (2011), pp. 1409–1414.

Jackson, T. L.

T. L. Jackson, F. Najjar, and J. Buckmaster, J. Propul. Power 21, 925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jueptner, W.

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography: Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer, 2005).

Karasev, V. V.

V. V. Karasev, A. A. Onischuk, O. G. Glotov, A. M. Baklanov, A. G. Maryasov, V. E. Zarko, V. N. Panfilov, A. I. Levykin, and K. K. Sabelfeld, Combust. Flame 138, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katz, J.

J. Katz and J. Sheng, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 531 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, and J. Katz, Appl. Opt. 45, 3893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krier, H.

J. C. Melcher, H. Krier, and R. L. Bourton, J. Propul. Power 18, 631 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, V.

Laredo, D.

D. Laredo, J. I. McCrorie, J. K. Vaughn, and D. W. Netzer, J. Propul. Power 10, 410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Laredo and D. W. Netzer, Part. Sci. Technol. 11, 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Levykin, A. I.

V. V. Karasev, A. A. Onischuk, O. G. Glotov, A. M. Baklanov, A. G. Maryasov, V. E. Zarko, V. N. Panfilov, A. I. Levykin, and K. K. Sabelfeld, Combust. Flame 138, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malkiel, E.

Maryasov, A. G.

V. V. Karasev, A. A. Onischuk, O. G. Glotov, A. M. Baklanov, A. G. Maryasov, V. E. Zarko, V. N. Panfilov, A. I. Levykin, and K. K. Sabelfeld, Combust. Flame 138, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCrorie, J. I.

D. Laredo, J. I. McCrorie, J. K. Vaughn, and D. W. Netzer, J. Propul. Power 10, 410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Melcher, J. C.

J. C. Melcher, H. Krier, and R. L. Bourton, J. Propul. Power 18, 631 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Najjar, F.

T. L. Jackson, F. Najjar, and J. Buckmaster, J. Propul. Power 21, 925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Netzer, D. W.

D. Laredo, J. I. McCrorie, J. K. Vaughn, and D. W. Netzer, J. Propul. Power 10, 410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Laredo and D. W. Netzer, Part. Sci. Technol. 11, 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Powers and D. W. Netzer, Proc. SPIE 1667, 136 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Onischuk, A. A.

V. V. Karasev, A. A. Onischuk, O. G. Glotov, A. M. Baklanov, A. G. Maryasov, V. E. Zarko, V. N. Panfilov, A. I. Levykin, and K. K. Sabelfeld, Combust. Flame 138, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Panfilov, V. N.

V. V. Karasev, A. A. Onischuk, O. G. Glotov, A. M. Baklanov, A. G. Maryasov, V. E. Zarko, V. N. Panfilov, A. I. Levykin, and K. K. Sabelfeld, Combust. Flame 138, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parigger, C. G.

J. L. Height, B. A. Donaldson, W. Gill, and C. G. Parigger, in Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (2011), pp. 1409–1414.

Powers, J. P.

J. P. Powers and D. W. Netzer, Proc. SPIE 1667, 136 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Price, E. W.

E. W. Price and R. K. Sigman, in Solid Propellant Chemistry, Combustion, and Motor Interior Ballistics (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2000), pp. 663–687.

Reu, P. L.

Sabelfeld, K. K.

V. V. Karasev, A. A. Onischuk, O. G. Glotov, A. M. Baklanov, A. G. Maryasov, V. E. Zarko, V. N. Panfilov, A. I. Levykin, and K. K. Sabelfeld, Combust. Flame 138, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography: Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer, 2005).

Sheng, J.

J. Katz and J. Sheng, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 531 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, and J. Katz, Appl. Opt. 45, 3893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sigman, R. K.

E. W. Price and R. K. Sigman, in Solid Propellant Chemistry, Combustion, and Motor Interior Ballistics (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2000), pp. 663–687.

Sojka, P. E.

Soria, J.

N. A. Buchmann, C. Atkinson, and J. Soria, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 024005 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, J. K.

D. Laredo, J. I. McCrorie, J. K. Vaughn, and D. W. Netzer, J. Propul. Power 10, 410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zarko, V. E.

V. V. Karasev, A. A. Onischuk, O. G. Glotov, A. M. Baklanov, A. G. Maryasov, V. E. Zarko, V. N. Panfilov, A. I. Levykin, and K. K. Sabelfeld, Combust. Flame 138, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.

J. Katz and J. Sheng, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 531 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Combust. Flame

V. V. Karasev, A. A. Onischuk, O. G. Glotov, A. M. Baklanov, A. G. Maryasov, V. E. Zarko, V. N. Panfilov, A. I. Levykin, and K. K. Sabelfeld, Combust. Flame 138, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids

D. R. Guildenbecher, L. Engvall, J. Gao, T. W. Grasser, P. L. Reu, and J. Chen, Exp. Fluids 55, 1670 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Propul. Power

D. Laredo, J. I. McCrorie, J. K. Vaughn, and D. W. Netzer, J. Propul. Power 10, 410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Melcher, H. Krier, and R. L. Bourton, J. Propul. Power 18, 631 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Jackson, F. Najjar, and J. Buckmaster, J. Propul. Power 21, 925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

N. A. Buchmann, C. Atkinson, and J. Soria, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 024005 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Part. Sci. Technol.

D. Laredo and D. W. Netzer, Part. Sci. Technol. 11, 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. P. Powers and D. W. Netzer, Proc. SPIE 1667, 136 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Propul. Phys.

F. Cauty, C. Erades, and J.-M. Desse, Prog. Propul. Phys. 2, 121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. W. Price and R. K. Sigman, in Solid Propellant Chemistry, Combustion, and Motor Interior Ballistics (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2000), pp. 663–687.

J. L. Height, B. A. Donaldson, W. Gill, and C. G. Parigger, in Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (2011), pp. 1409–1414.

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography: Digital Hologram Recording, Numerical Reconstruction, and Related Techniques (Springer, 2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Select images from a high-speed recording of the burning aluminized propellant strand at 1 atm. The time between images is 1.67 ms. No additional lighting is used, and the images show the self-luminous features.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental configuration for DIH measurement of the burning aluminized propellant strand.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Digital in-line holograms of the aluminized propellant strand at an instant when the burning surface is (a) within the line of sight and (b) below the line of sight.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

In-focus features observed in numerically refocused amplitude images of the hologram shown in Fig. 3(a) at the specified z locations using Eq. (1). The second row shows zoomed-in views of the regions enclosed by the dotted white boxes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

In-focus features that have been automatically measured from the holograms shown in Fig. 3. Measured drop diameters are shown with blue circles. Estimated flame locations are shown by red dots for all drops with d70μm. Other in-focus features, which are not detected as drops, are shown with white outlines. The background shows the hologram in regions where in-focus features are not found. Note that features have been detected at various z locations, and are overlaid here.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Volumetric size distribution measured with DIH (gray bars). The solid line shows the best fit two-component Gaussian mixture model.

Equations (1)

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E(x,y;z)=[h(x,y)Er*(x,y)]g(x,y;z).

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