Abstract

The polarization and orbital angular momentum properties of light are of great importance in optical science and technology in the fields of high-precision optical measurements and high-capacity and high-speed optical communications. Here we show a method for the construction of a simple and robust scheme to rotate a light beam such as a fan, which is based on a combination of these two properties and using the thermal-dispersion and electro-optical effect of birefringent crystals. Using a computer-based digital image-processing technique, we determine the temperature and thermal-dispersion difference of the crystal with high resolution. We also use the rotation phenomenon to realize thermo-optic and electro-optic switches. The basic operating principles for measurement and switching processes are presented in detail. The methods developed here will have wide practical applicability in various fields, including remote sensing, materials science, and optical communication networks.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, Science 338, 640 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” arXiv:1402.7113v1[quant-ph] (2014).
  10. D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).
  11. V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. C. G. Rafael and E. W. Richard, Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2007).
  15. K. Kato and E. Takaoka, Appl. Opt. 41, 5040 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2013

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, Nat. Photonics 7, 229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, Science 338, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, Nat. Photonics 5, 343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato and E. Takaoka, Appl. Opt. 41, 5040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, E.

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aolita, L.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H.-A.

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, Nat. Photonics 7, 229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S. M.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, J. T.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, W. P.

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, Nat. Photonics 7, 229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, R.

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, Nat. Photonics 5, 343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” arXiv:1402.7113v1[quant-ph] (2014).

Buller, G. S.

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D’Ambrosio, V.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Daria, V.

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, Nat. Photonics 7, 229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Data, A. C.

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Del Re, L.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ding, D.-S.

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fickler, R.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, Science 338, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” arXiv:1402.7113v1[quant-ph] (2014).

Guo, G.-C.

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).

Hage, B.

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, Nat. Photonics 7, 229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ireland, D. G.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jack, B.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janousek, J.

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, Nat. Photonics 7, 229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A. K.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

Knittel, J.

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, Nat. Photonics 7, 229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, M.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, Science 338, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwek, L. C.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lapkiewicz, R.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, Science 338, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leach, J.

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Magana-Loaiza, O. S.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” arXiv:1402.7113v1[quant-ph] (2014).

Malik, M.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” arXiv:1402.7113v1[quant-ph] (2014).

Marrucci, L.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mirhosseini, M.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” arXiv:1402.7113v1[quant-ph] (2014).

O’Sullivan, M. N.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” arXiv:1402.7113v1[quant-ph] (2014).

Padgett, M.

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, Nat. Photonics 5, 343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, L.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Plick, W. N.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, Science 338, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rafael, C. G.

C. G. Rafael and E. W. Richard, Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2007).

Ramelow, S.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, Science 338, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, P. K.

P. K. Rastogi, Optical Measurement Techniques and Applications (Artech House, 1997).

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richard, E. W.

C. G. Rafael and E. W. Richard, Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2007).

Rodenburg, B.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” arXiv:1402.7113v1[quant-ph] (2014).

Romero, J.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schaeff, C.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, Science 338, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sciarrinao, F.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shi, B.-S.

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).

Sibbett, W.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, N.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sulssarenko, S.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Takaoka, E.

Taylor, M. A.

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, Nat. Photonics 7, 229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Volke-Sepulveda, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walborn, S. P.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-C.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, A. M.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, Science 338, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.-Y.

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).

Appl. Opt.

Nat. Commun.

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, Nat. Photonics 7, 229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, Nat. Photonics 5, 343 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, Nat. Phys. 4, 282 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Science 329, 662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, Science 338, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” arXiv:1402.7113v1[quant-ph] (2014).

C. G. Rafael and E. W. Richard, Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2007).

P. K. Rastogi, Optical Measurement Techniques and Applications (Artech House, 1997).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. HWP, half-wave plate; QWP, quarter-wave plate; L1, L2, lenses; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; M1–M3, mirrors; VPP, vortex phase plate; PC, personal computer; CCD, charge-coupled device camera; KTP, potassium titanyl phosphate crystal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental data. (a) and (b) show the interference patterns for l=2 and 20, respectively; (c) and (d) show the relative rotation angle as a function of the relative temperature change of the crystal for l=2 and 20, respectively; (e) shows the leakage power from the aperture as a function of the crystal temperature for l=2; (f) shows a typical correlation curve from the numerical calculation for l=20.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Voltage-scanning signal of the EOM and the intensity signal from the photodiode detector, recorded using the oscilloscope. The scanning amplitude is attenuated 20 times before connection to the oscilloscope, while the detector signal is 30 times the magnitude of the real signal.

Equations (4)

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|Φ1=12(|H|l+eiα|V|l).
|Φ2=12(|H|l+ei(α+β)|V|l),
|Φ3=12|H(|l+ei(α+β)|l).
Δθ=πLlλ[γ(nzny)+(nzny)T]ΔT.

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