Abstract

We report the excitation of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) close to the orthogonal axis of a gold (Au) film on borosilicate glass. Direct spectroscopic measurement of SPR shifts using different liquids are made at 5° incidence within a reflection spectrophotometer. The proposed mechanism to establish coupling and plasmon localization is the scattering of light able to penetrate across the film at the interfaces.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4(21), 396 (1902).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. 23A, 2135 (1968).
  3. A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. S. Barker, Phys. Rev. 28, 892 (1972).
  6. J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. J. M. Kreuwel, P. V. Lambeck, J. V. Gent, and Th. J. A. Popma, Proc. SPIE V798, 218 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. S. Vukusic, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, Sens. Actuators B 8, 155 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Ruffato and F. Romanato, Opt. Lett. 37, 2718 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. http://www.filmetrics.com/refractive-index-database/Au/Gold .
  13. A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Brust, D. Bethell, C. J. Kiely, and D. J. Schiffrin, Langmuir 14, 5425 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Canning, N. Tzoumis, J. K. Beattie, B. C. Gibson, and E. Ilagan, Chem. Commun. 50, 9172 (2014),
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Rüting, P. A. Huidobro, and F. J. García-Vidal, Opt. Lett. 36, 4341 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Petermann, J. Canning, and M. Foley, International Quantum Electronics Conference (IQEC)/Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Pacific Rim, (IQEC/CLEO-Pacific Rim), Sydney, Australia (2011).
  21. M. Naqshbandi, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, M. Nash, and M. J. Crossley, Nat. Commun 3, 1188 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

J. Canning, N. Tzoumis, J. K. Beattie, B. C. Gibson, and E. Ilagan, Chem. Commun. 50, 9172 (2014),
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

G. Ruffato and F. Romanato, Opt. Lett. 37, 2718 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Naqshbandi, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, M. Nash, and M. J. Crossley, Nat. Commun 3, 1188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2005 (2)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Brust, D. Bethell, C. J. Kiely, and D. J. Schiffrin, Langmuir 14, 5425 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. S. Vukusic, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, Sens. Actuators B 8, 155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

H. J. M. Kreuwel, P. V. Lambeck, J. V. Gent, and Th. J. A. Popma, Proc. SPIE V798, 218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. S. Barker, Phys. Rev. 28, 892 (1972).

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. 23A, 2135 (1968).

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1902 (1)

R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4(21), 396 (1902).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. W.

P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Barker, A. S.

A. S. Barker, Phys. Rev. 28, 892 (1972).

Beattie, J. K.

J. Canning, N. Tzoumis, J. K. Beattie, B. C. Gibson, and E. Ilagan, Chem. Commun. 50, 9172 (2014),
[CrossRef]

Bethell, D.

M. Brust, D. Bethell, C. J. Kiely, and D. J. Schiffrin, Langmuir 14, 5425 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brust, M.

M. Brust, D. Bethell, C. J. Kiely, and D. J. Schiffrin, Langmuir 14, 5425 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bryan-Brown, G. P.

P. S. Vukusic, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, Sens. Actuators B 8, 155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

J. Canning, N. Tzoumis, J. K. Beattie, B. C. Gibson, and E. Ilagan, Chem. Commun. 50, 9172 (2014),
[CrossRef]

M. Naqshbandi, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, M. Nash, and M. J. Crossley, Nat. Commun 3, 1188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Petermann, J. Canning, and M. Foley, International Quantum Electronics Conference (IQEC)/Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Pacific Rim, (IQEC/CLEO-Pacific Rim), Sydney, Australia (2011).

Crossley, M. J.

M. Naqshbandi, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, M. Nash, and M. J. Crossley, Nat. Commun 3, 1188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dostalek, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foley, M.

I. Petermann, J. Canning, and M. Foley, International Quantum Electronics Conference (IQEC)/Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Pacific Rim, (IQEC/CLEO-Pacific Rim), Sydney, Australia (2011).

García-Vidal, F. J.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gent, J. V.

H. J. M. Kreuwel, P. V. Lambeck, J. V. Gent, and Th. J. A. Popma, Proc. SPIE V798, 218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B. C.

J. Canning, N. Tzoumis, J. K. Beattie, B. C. Gibson, and E. Ilagan, Chem. Commun. 50, 9172 (2014),
[CrossRef]

M. Naqshbandi, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, M. Nash, and M. J. Crossley, Nat. Commun 3, 1188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huidobro, P. A.

Ilagan, E.

J. Canning, N. Tzoumis, J. K. Beattie, B. C. Gibson, and E. Ilagan, Chem. Commun. 50, 9172 (2014),
[CrossRef]

Jorgenson, R. C.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kiely, C. J.

M. Brust, D. Bethell, C. J. Kiely, and D. J. Schiffrin, Langmuir 14, 5425 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. 23A, 2135 (1968).

Kreuwel, H. J. M.

H. J. M. Kreuwel, P. V. Lambeck, J. V. Gent, and Th. J. A. Popma, Proc. SPIE V798, 218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

H. J. M. Kreuwel, P. V. Lambeck, J. V. Gent, and Th. J. A. Popma, Proc. SPIE V798, 218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miler, M.

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Naqshbandi, M.

M. Naqshbandi, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, M. Nash, and M. J. Crossley, Nat. Commun 3, 1188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nash, M.

M. Naqshbandi, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, M. Nash, and M. J. Crossley, Nat. Commun 3, 1188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Otto, A.

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, I.

I. Petermann, J. Canning, and M. Foley, International Quantum Electronics Conference (IQEC)/Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Pacific Rim, (IQEC/CLEO-Pacific Rim), Sydney, Australia (2011).

Popma, Th. J. A.

H. J. M. Kreuwel, P. V. Lambeck, J. V. Gent, and Th. J. A. Popma, Proc. SPIE V798, 218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. 23A, 2135 (1968).

Romanato, F.

Ruffato, G.

Rüting, F.

Sambles, J. R.

P. S. Vukusic, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, Sens. Actuators B 8, 155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schiffrin, D. J.

M. Brust, D. Bethell, C. J. Kiely, and D. J. Schiffrin, Langmuir 14, 5425 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, V. A.

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tzoumis, N.

J. Canning, N. Tzoumis, J. K. Beattie, B. C. Gibson, and E. Ilagan, Chem. Commun. 50, 9172 (2014),
[CrossRef]

Vukusic, P. S.

P. S. Vukusic, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, Sens. Actuators B 8, 155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4(21), 396 (1902).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (1)

J. Canning, N. Tzoumis, J. K. Beattie, B. C. Gibson, and E. Ilagan, Chem. Commun. 50, 9172 (2014),
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

M. Brust, D. Bethell, C. J. Kiely, and D. J. Schiffrin, Langmuir 14, 5425 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun (1)

M. Naqshbandi, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, M. Nash, and M. J. Crossley, Nat. Commun 3, 1188 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Mag. (1)

R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4(21), 396 (1902).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

A. S. Barker, Phys. Rev. 28, 892 (1972).

P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. J. M. Kreuwel, P. V. Lambeck, J. V. Gent, and Th. J. A. Popma, Proc. SPIE V798, 218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (4)

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Vukusic, G. P. Bryan-Brown, and J. R. Sambles, Sens. Actuators B 8, 155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Dostalek, J. Homola, and M. Miler, Sens. Actuators B 107, 154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Naturforsch. (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, Z. Naturforsch. 23A, 2135 (1968).

Z. Phys. (2)

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

http://www.filmetrics.com/refractive-index-database/Au/Gold .

I. Petermann, J. Canning, and M. Foley, International Quantum Electronics Conference (IQEC)/Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Pacific Rim, (IQEC/CLEO-Pacific Rim), Sydney, Australia (2011).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Reflected signal at 632.5 nm versus angle of incidence, θ, from the orthogonal axis to the base of the borosilicate slide within the Kretchmann setup: (a) and (c) are the classical sharp SPR for the 45 nm in-house film and 50 nm PHASIS commercial film respectively; (b) and (d) are the secondary, broader feature at smaller angles away from the orthogonal axis.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Atomic force microscope (AFM) height images of (a) 50 nm thick commercially sputtered Au where it is difficult to observe any aggregated regions. Instead, nanoscale cracking is observed; and (b) 45 nm thick Au where the film is uneven and lumpy in appearance, with intermittent large scatterers. Also observable is an undulation with a quasi-period of 2μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrophotometer measurements in reflection: (a) schematic of reflection configuration showing near orthogonal launch onto Au film where no prism is necessary; (b) the measured spectra for near-orthogonal excited SPR in the presence of air, water, and toluene; and (c) the peak wavelength shift from (a) as a function of refractive index, n.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϵ˜=ϵ+iϵ=(n+iκ)2.
kSPR=k0(ϵ1ϵ2ϵ1+ϵ2)12,
θ=tan1(n3/n1),

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