Abstract

We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a twin-core fiber (TCF)-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to develop an ultrasensitive refractive index (RI) sensor. This fiber MZI was constructed by splicing a short section of TCF between two sections of single mode fibers. A microchannel was drilled through one core of the TCF by means of femtosecond laser micromachining to create one arm of the proposed interferometer, and the other core worked as the second arm. Such a fiber interferometer exhibits an ultrahigh RI sensitivity of 10981nm/RIU and a low temperature cross-sensitivity of 3.96×106RIU/°C. Moreover, the ultra-compact device size and all-fiber configuration make it very suitable for highly sensitive RI sensing at precise location.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Yin, X. Zhong, K. Yang, B. Sun, G. Wang, and Z. Li, Opt. Express 22, 1680 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Yin, S. Lou, W. Lu, and X. Wang, Appl. Phys. B 115, 6 (2014).

2013 (3)

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B. Li, L. Jiang, S. Wang, J. Yang, M. Wang, and Q. Chen, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. Yang, L. Jiang, S. Wang, B. Li, M. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, Appl. Opt. 50, 5503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, L. Jiang, S. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H.-L. Tsai, Sensors 11, 54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

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C. R. Liao, W. Ying, D. N. Wang, and M. W. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1686 (2010).
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Y. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

Y. P. Wang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and X. K. Zeng, Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

Chen, J.

Chen, Q.

B. Li, L. Jiang, S. Wang, J. Yang, M. Wang, and Q. Chen, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T. Y.

Ishaq, I.

James, S. W.

Jiang, L.

B. Li, L. Jiang, S. Wang, J. Yang, M. Wang, and Q. Chen, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, L. Jiang, S. Wang, B. Li, M. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, Appl. Opt. 50, 5503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, L. Jiang, S. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H.-L. Tsai, Sensors 11, 54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, S.

Li, B.

B. Li, L. Jiang, S. Wang, J. Yang, M. Wang, and Q. Chen, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, L. Jiang, S. Wang, B. Li, M. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, Appl. Opt. 50, 5503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Liao, S. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Zhong, Y. Liu, K. Yang, Q. Wang, and G. Yin, Sens. Actuators B 199, 31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Yin, X. Zhong, K. Yang, B. Sun, G. Wang, and Z. Li, Opt. Express 22, 1680 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.

J. Zhou, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Yin, X. Zhong, K. Yang, B. Sun, G. Wang, and Z. Li, Opt. Express 22, 1680 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Liao, S. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Zhong, Y. Liu, K. Yang, Q. Wang, and G. Yin, Sens. Actuators B 199, 31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. R.

C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, and Y. Wang, Opt. Lett. 38, 757 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Liao, W. Ying, D. N. Wang, and M. W. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Liao, S. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Zhong, Y. Liu, K. Yang, Q. Wang, and G. Yin, Sens. Actuators B 199, 31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, M. Yang, D. N. Wang, S. Liu, and P. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 370 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Liao, S. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Zhong, Y. Liu, K. Yang, Q. Wang, and G. Yin, Sens. Actuators B 199, 31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lou, S.

G. Yin, S. Lou, W. Lu, and X. Wang, Appl. Phys. B 115, 6 (2014).

G. Yin, S. Lou, and H. Zou, Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 294 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Lu, W.

G. Yin, S. Lou, W. Lu, and X. Wang, Appl. Phys. B 115, 6 (2014).

Lu, Y.

J. Yang, L. Jiang, S. Wang, B. Li, M. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, Appl. Opt. 50, 5503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, L. Jiang, S. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H.-L. Tsai, Sensors 11, 54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Ran, Z. L.

Y. P. Wang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and X. K. Zeng, Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y.

Rao, Y. J.

Y. P. Wang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and X. K. Zeng, Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

Tatam, R. P.

Tsai, H.

Tsai, H.-L.

L. Zhao, L. Jiang, S. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H.-L. Tsai, Sensors 11, 54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, G.

Wang, M.

B. Li, L. Jiang, S. Wang, J. Yang, M. Wang, and Q. Chen, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, L. Jiang, S. Wang, B. Li, M. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, Appl. Opt. 50, 5503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Liao, S. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Zhong, Y. Liu, K. Yang, Q. Wang, and G. Yin, Sens. Actuators B 199, 31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

B. Li, L. Jiang, S. Wang, J. Yang, M. Wang, and Q. Chen, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, L. Jiang, S. Wang, B. Li, M. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, Appl. Opt. 50, 5503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, L. Jiang, S. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H.-L. Tsai, Sensors 11, 54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

G. Yin, S. Lou, W. Lu, and X. Wang, Appl. Phys. B 115, 6 (2014).

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. P.

Y. P. Wang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and X. K. Zeng, Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

J. Yang, L. Jiang, S. Wang, B. Li, M. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, Appl. Opt. 50, 5503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, L. Jiang, S. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H.-L. Tsai, Sensors 11, 54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

B. Li, L. Jiang, S. Wang, J. Yang, M. Wang, and Q. Chen, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, L. Jiang, S. Wang, B. Li, M. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, Appl. Opt. 50, 5503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Liao, S. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Zhong, Y. Liu, K. Yang, Q. Wang, and G. Yin, Sens. Actuators B 199, 31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Yin, X. Zhong, K. Yang, B. Sun, G. Wang, and Z. Li, Opt. Express 22, 1680 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

Yang, M. W.

C. R. Liao, W. Ying, D. N. Wang, and M. W. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G.

J. Zhou, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Yin, X. Zhong, K. Yang, B. Sun, G. Wang, and Z. Li, Opt. Express 22, 1680 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Liao, S. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Zhong, Y. Liu, K. Yang, Q. Wang, and G. Yin, Sens. Actuators B 199, 31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Yin, S. Lou, W. Lu, and X. Wang, Appl. Phys. B 115, 6 (2014).

G. Yin, S. Lou, and H. Zou, Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 294 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ying, W.

C. R. Liao, W. Ying, D. N. Wang, and M. W. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X. K.

Y. P. Wang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and X. K. Zeng, Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

L. Zhao, L. Jiang, S. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H.-L. Tsai, Sensors 11, 54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, X.

J. Zhou, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Yin, X. Zhong, K. Yang, B. Sun, G. Wang, and Z. Li, Opt. Express 22, 1680 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Liao, S. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Zhong, Y. Liu, K. Yang, Q. Wang, and G. Yin, Sens. Actuators B 199, 31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Liao, S. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Zhong, Y. Liu, K. Yang, Q. Wang, and G. Yin, Sens. Actuators B 199, 31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Yin, X. Zhong, K. Yang, B. Sun, G. Wang, and Z. Li, Opt. Express 22, 1680 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

Y. P. Wang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and X. K. Zeng, Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zou, H.

G. Yin, S. Lou, and H. Zou, Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 294 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Yin, S. Lou, W. Lu, and X. Wang, Appl. Phys. B 115, 6 (2014).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. R. Liao, W. Ying, D. N. Wang, and M. W. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1686 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

B. Li, L. Jiang, S. Wang, J. Yang, M. Wang, and Q. Chen, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Yin, S. Lou, and H. Zou, Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 294 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

Y. P. Wang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, and X. K. Zeng, Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Sens. Actuators B (1)

Z. Li, Y. Wang, C. Liao, S. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Zhong, Y. Liu, K. Yang, Q. Wang, and G. Yin, Sens. Actuators B 199, 31 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

L. Zhao, L. Jiang, S. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H.-L. Tsai, Sensors 11, 54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the TCF-based MZI.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical microscope image of the cross-sectional morphology of the TCF; (b) unequal intensity distribution on the end face of TCF; (c) equal intensity distribution on the end face of TCF; (d) splicing point between SMF and TCF.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of the fs laser micromachining system, which is employed to fabricate in-fiber structure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical microscope images of the microchannel from (a) the top view and (b) the side view.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Fringe spacing as a function of the microchannel length at 1550 nm. Inset: transmission spectra of the TCF-based MZIs with microchannel lengths of 43, 61, 80, and 110 μm; (b) transmission spectrum and PDL of the TCF-based MZI with the microchannel length of 43 μm in the air.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Transmission spectral evolution within the wavelength range from 1400 to 1700 nm when the surrounding RI changes from 1.0 (in air) to 1.32; (b) Dip wavelength and insertion loss vary with RI.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Wavelength shift of the fringe dip with the temperature varying from 25°C to 100°C. Inset: the evolution of the transmission spectrum with temperature variation.

Equations (3)

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I=Iout1+Iout2+2Iout1Iout2cos(2πLΔnλ+φ0),
2πLΔnλm+φ0=(2m+1)π,
FSR=λ2ΔnL.

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