Abstract

We demonstrate, by coherent driving two uncoupled rings in same direction, that the effective photon circulating time in the dual-ring modulator is reduced, with increased modulation quality. The inter-ring detuning-dependent photon dynamics, Q factor, extinction ratio, and optical modulation amplitude of two cascaded silicon ring resonators are studied and compared with that of a single-ring modulator. Experimentally measured eye diagrams, together with coupled mode theory simulations, demonstrate the enhancement of the dual-ring configuration at 20 Gbps with a Q20,000.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 20298 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Opt. Express 19, 5172 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, Opt. Express 19, 21989 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Lzhaky, and M. Paniccia, Opt. Express 15, 660 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. M. Passaro and F. Dell’Olio, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 401 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Dong, Y. K. Chen, T. Gu, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, and J. H. Sinsky, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4G.2.
  7. A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 18, 3582 (2010).
  8. N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shaffiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 7994 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fedeil, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Marti, Opt. Express 17, 21986 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, H. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, Opt. Express 21, 9722 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Gu, C. W. Wong, Y. Chen, and P. Dong, in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SM2G-1.
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    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Hu, X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, Opt. Express 20, 15079 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Qiu, J. Shu, Z. Li, X. Zhang, and Q. Xu, Opt. Express 19, 5143 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121103 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Y. Wen, O. Kuzucu, M. Fridman, A. L. Gaeta, L.-W. Luo, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223907 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

Y. Hu, X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, Opt. Express 20, 15079 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Wen, O. Kuzucu, M. Fridman, A. L. Gaeta, L.-W. Luo, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qiang, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoothy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 2248 (2009).

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fedeil, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Marti, Opt. Express 17, 21986 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

V. M. Passaro and F. Dell’Olio, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Alon, E.

Amberg, P.

Asano, T.

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Barwicz, T.

Brimont, A.

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, Y. K. Chen, T. Gu, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, and J. H. Sinsky, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4G.2.

Chen, Y.

T. Gu, C. W. Wong, Y. Chen, and P. Dong, in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SM2G-1.

Chen, Y. K.

P. Dong, Y. K. Chen, T. Gu, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, and J. H. Sinsky, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4G.2.

Chetrit, Y.

Chu, T.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dayringer, M.

Dell’Olio, F.

V. M. Passaro and F. Dell’Olio, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Opt. Express 19, 5172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 20298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shaffiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 7994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qiang, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoothy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 2248 (2009).

Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, Nat. Phys. 3, 406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, Y. K. Chen, T. Gu, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, and J. H. Sinsky, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4G.2.

T. Gu, C. W. Wong, Y. Chen, and P. Dong, in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SM2G-1.

Dumon, P.

Fedeil, J. M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Foster, M. A.

Fridman, M.

H. Y. Wen, O. Kuzucu, M. Fridman, A. L. Gaeta, L.-W. Luo, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Froggatt, M. E.

Gaeta, A. L.

H. Y. Wen, O. Kuzucu, M. Fridman, A. L. Gaeta, L.-W. Luo, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 18, 3582 (2010).

Gainsley, J.

Gardes, F. Y.

Gifford, D. K.

Green, W. M. J.

Gu, T.

T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, Y. K. Chen, T. Gu, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, and J. H. Sinsky, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4G.2.

T. Gu, C. W. Wong, Y. Chen, and P. Dong, in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SM2G-1.

Ho, R.

Hu, Y.

Kocaman, S.

T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Krishnamoothy, A. V.

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qiang, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoothy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 2248 (2009).

Kung, C.-C.

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qiang, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoothy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 2248 (2009).

Kuzucu, O.

H. Y. Wen, O. Kuzucu, M. Fridman, A. L. Gaeta, L.-W. Luo, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.-L.

T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

Levy, J. S.

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

Liao, S.

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shaffiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 7994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qiang, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoothy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 2248 (2009).

Lipson, M.

H. Y. Wen, O. Kuzucu, M. Fridman, A. L. Gaeta, L.-W. Luo, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 18, 3582 (2010).

Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, Nat. Phys. 3, 406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

Liu, F.

Lo, G.-Q.

T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, L.-W.

H. Y. Wen, O. Kuzucu, M. Fridman, A. L. Gaeta, L.-W. Luo, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Lzhaky, N.

Marris-Morini, D.

Marti, J.

McMillan, J. F.

T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

Moghadam, H. F.

Neilson, D. T.

P. Dong, Y. K. Chen, T. Gu, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, and J. H. Sinsky, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4G.2.

Nguyen, H.

Noda, S.

O’Faolain, L.

Pan, H.

Paniccia, M.

Passaro, V. M.

V. M. Passaro and F. Dell’Olio, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patil, D.

Pinguet, T.

Poitras, C. B.

Poon, J. K. S.

Qian, W.

Qiang, W.

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qiang, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoothy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 2248 (2009).

Qiu, C.

Raj, K.

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G. T.

Rubin, D.

Sacher, W. D.

Salem, R.

Sanchis, P.

Shaffiha, R.

Shafiiha, R.

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 20298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qiang, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoothy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 2248 (2009).

Shank, S. M.

Shu, J.

Shubin, I.

Sinsky, J. H.

P. Dong, Y. K. Chen, T. Gu, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, and J. H. Sinsky, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4G.2.

Soller, B. J.

Song, B.-S.

Thacker, H.

Trotter, D. C.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watts, M. R.

Wen, H. Y.

H. Y. Wen, O. Kuzucu, M. Fridman, A. L. Gaeta, L.-W. Luo, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, M. S.

Wong, C. W.

T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Gu, C. W. Wong, Y. Chen, and P. Dong, in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SM2G-1.

Xiao, X.

Xiong, K.

Xu, H.

Xu, Q.

Yang, X.

T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. W.

Yu, J.

Yu, M. B.

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.-B.

T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Zhang, X.

Zheng, D.

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shaffiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 7994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qiang, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoothy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 2248 (2009).

Zheng, X.

Zortman, W. A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 221111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

V. M. Passaro and F. Dell’Olio, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, Nat. Phys. 3, 406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, Opt. Express 13, 1202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qiang, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoothy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 2248 (2009).

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Lzhaky, and M. Paniccia, Opt. Express 15, 660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fedeil, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Marti, Opt. Express 17, 21986 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 18, 3582 (2010).

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shaffiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 7994 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 20298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Qiu, J. Shu, Z. Li, X. Zhang, and Q. Xu, Opt. Express 19, 5143 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Opt. Express 19, 5172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, Opt. Express 19, 21989 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, Opt. Express 20, 15079 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, H. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, Opt. Express 21, 9722 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Y. Wen, O. Kuzucu, M. Fridman, A. L. Gaeta, L.-W. Luo, and M. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223907 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Dong, Y. K. Chen, T. Gu, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, and J. H. Sinsky, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4G.2.

T. Gu, C. W. Wong, Y. Chen, and P. Dong, in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SM2G-1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectral and time domain schematics of a dual-ring modulator. (a) Transmission spectrum of typical single- (blue) and dual-ring (red) modulator, with typical Q(s) of 20,000. The initial state at zero reverse bias (dashed curves) are shifted 30pm to the right (solid lines). Inset, schematics of dual-ring modulator coupled to the same bus waveguide. (b) Transmission spectrum of single- and dual-ring modulator with 60 pm inter-ring detuning. (c) OMA and ER versus inter-ring detuning for a dual-ring modulator, where the OMA and ER of the single ring are marked by arrows. (d) Photon decay dynamics for single and dual ring.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

High-speed modulation performance of a dual-ring modulator. (a) Simulated modulation eye diagram for single ring. (b) Double-ring operation at 40 Gb/s. (c) Histogram of the transmission along the eye height. (d) Q factor, ER, and OMA of a dual-ring (red solid circle) and single-ring (black empty square) modulator with zero inter-ring detuning. (e) Inter-ring detuning for a dual ring operating at 20 GHz (solid circles) and 40 GHz (empty squares).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Device layout. (a) Schematic cross-section drawing of dual-ring modulator with lateral pn junction and integrated heaters. (b) Optical top view of the silicon ring with integrated pn junction and heater. (c) The devices under test are reconfigurable photonic networks-on-chip-based microrings.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

DC characteristics. (a) Transmission and delay measurement (red dots) and CMT simulation of double rings. (b) Resonance shift versus the reverse-biased voltage. The dots are experimental data and the black line is quadratic fit. Inset, transmitted power versus normalized laser resonance detuning of the ring under reverse bias from 0 to 3V.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of 20 Gb/s operation for single- and dual-ring modulators. (a) Measured eye diagrams on the output port of ring 1 on sampling oscilloscope. (b) Time domain CMT simulation of superposition of 200 single shots, with pseudorandom input. (c) Experimental and (d) correspondent CMT calculation for ring 2. (e) Experimental and (f) CMT calculation for double rings with synchronized electrical data drive (considering 10 ps electrical delay).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

da1dt=(i(ω1ω)12τ1)a1+12τ1cs1+,
da2dt=(i(ω2ω)12τ2)a2+12τ2cei(βL)a1+12τ2cei(βL)s1+,

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