Abstract

We report on a narrow-linewidth distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser at 8.6 μm that is optical-feedback locked to a high-finesse V-shaped cavity. The spectral purity of the quantum cascade laser is fully characterized using a high-sensitivity optical frequency discriminator, leading to a 1 ms linewidth of less than 4 kHz and a minimum laser frequency noise spectral density as low as 0.01Hz2/Hz for Fourier frequencies larger than 100 kHz. The cumulative standard deviation of the laser intensity is better than 0.1% over an integration bandwidth from 2 Hz to 100 MHz.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 110, 309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Burkart, D. Romanini, and S. Kassi, Opt. Lett. 38, 2062 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).

1999 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

P. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Breant, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1131 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

Akikusa, N.

Amy-Klein, A.

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Argence, B.

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Bartalini, S.

Bielsa, F.

Borri, S.

Breant, C.

P. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Breant, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1131 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Burkart, J.

Cancio, P.

Cannon, B. D.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).

Capasso, F.

Cappelli, F.

Carras, M.

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 110, 309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Maisons, P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, M. Carras, and D. Romanini, Opt. Lett. 35, 3607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, C.

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Chenevier, M.

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

Clairon, A.

P. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Breant, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1131 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dahmani, B.

Darquié, B.

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Daussy, C.

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

De Rosa, M.

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Di Domenico, G.

Di Francesco, J.

Di Sarno, V.

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Douillet, A.

L. Hilico, A. Douillet, J. P. Karr, and E. Tournié, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 096106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bielsa, A. Douillet, T. Valenzuela, J. P. Karr, and L. Hilico, Opt. Lett. 32, 1641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R.

Edamura, T.

Faist, J.

Fasci, E.

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 110, 309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M.

Galli, I.

Galli, L.

Gatti, D.

Gianfrani, L.

Giusfredi, G.

Gmachl, C.

Goncharov, A.

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, P.

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 110, 309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Maisons, P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, M. Carras, and D. Romanini, Opt. Lett. 35, 3607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hansch, T. W.

Hartl, I.

Hartman, J. S.

Hemmerich, A.

Hilico, L.

L. Hilico, A. Douillet, J. P. Karr, and E. Tournié, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 096106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bielsa, A. Douillet, T. Valenzuela, J. P. Karr, and L. Hilico, Opt. Lett. 32, 1641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

Hollberg, L.

Jiang, J.

Karr, J. P.

L. Hilico, A. Douillet, J. P. Karr, and E. Tournié, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 096106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bielsa, A. Douillet, T. Valenzuela, J. P. Karr, and L. Hilico, Opt. Lett. 32, 1641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kassi, S.

J. Burkart, D. Romanini, and S. Kassi, Opt. Lett. 38, 2062 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. F.

Laurent, P.

P. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Breant, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1131 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, O.

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Maddaloni, P.

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Maisons, G.

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 110, 309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Maisons, P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, M. Carras, and D. Romanini, Opt. Lett. 35, 3607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

Mazzotti, D.

McIntyre, D. H.

Mefford, W.

Mejri, S.

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mills, A. A.

Mohr, C.

Montori, A.

Morville, J.

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mosca, S.

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Myers, T. L.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).

Ricciardi, I.

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 110, 309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Burkart, D. Romanini, and S. Kassi, Opt. Lett. 38, 2062 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Maisons, P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, M. Carras, and D. Romanini, Opt. Lett. 35, 3607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santamaria, L.

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Santambrogio, G.

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Schilt, S.

Sharpe, S. W.

Sivco, D. L.

Sow, P. L. T.

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. S.

Thomann, P.

Tokunaga, S. K.

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tombez, L.

Toth, R. A.

Tournié, E.

L. Hilico, A. Douillet, J. P. Karr, and E. Tournié, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 096106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Valenzuela, T.

Ventrillard, I.

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 110, 309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

Yamanishi, M.

Zimmermann, C.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, Appl. Phys. B 110, 309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. L. T. Sow, S. Mejri, S. K. Tokunaga, O. Lopez, A. Goncharov, B. Argence, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, and B. Darquié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 264101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Laurent, A. Clairon, and C. Breant, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1131 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

L. Santamaria, V. Di Sarno, I. Ricciardi, S. Mosca, M. De Rosa, G. Santambrogio, P. Maddaloni, and P. De Natale, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300, 116 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (9)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Hilico, A. Douillet, J. P. Karr, and E. Tournié, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 096106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta A (1)

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3457 (2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for the OF of the QCL to a V-shaped cavity and for its characterization using optical frequency discriminators. AL, aspherical lens; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; PD, photodetector; PZT, piezoelectric actuator; OI, optical isolator; VA, variable attenuator. Inset: (black curve) typical temporal evolution of an empty-cavity ring-down event as recorded by the detector PD1, and (red curve) fitting of the experimental data to a single exponential decay.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

RIN measurements of the OF-QCL: PSD (bottom chart) and cumulative standard deviation (top chart).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Frequency noise PSD of the QCL laser in free-running (red line) and in OF locking (green line) together with the RIN contribution (gray), the noise floor (blue), and the β-line, 8ln2/π2f (black). (b) Calculated emission linewidth versus integration bandwidth.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) High-finesse FP transmission. Details of the fundamental FP fringe for (b) free-running QCL with OI, and for an OF-QCL (c) without and (d) with OI.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Frequency noise PSD of the OF-QCL laser (green line) together with the RIN contribution (gray), the noise floor (blue), and the β-line (black). (b) Calculated emission linewidth versus integration bandwidth.

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