Abstract

One-way optical transmission through a composite structure of grating-photonic crystal (PC) is presented. This unidirectional transportation property originates from the diffraction of grating to change the direction of light incident into the PC from pseudobandgaps to passbands of the PC. Numerical simulation shows that a light beam in a certain range of frequencies can transmit the composite structure when it is incident from the grating interface but is completely reflected by the structure when it is incident from the PC interface, which is further verified experimentally. The present structure may provide another more compact way for designing on-chip optical diode-like integrated devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
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M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213905 (2012).
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L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y. L. Xu, M. H. Lu, and Y. F. Chen, Science 333, 729 (2011).
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W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and C. Zeng, Opt. Lett. 36, 2842 (2011).
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X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 084301 (2011).
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H. Ramezani, T. Kottos, R. El-Ganainy, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043803 (2010).
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C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253902 (2010).
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S. Cakmakyapan, A. E. Serebryannikov, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Lett. 35, 2597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Yu and S. Fan, Nat. Photonics 3, 91 (2009).
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A. E. Serebryannikov, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023514 (2007).
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C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111111 (2007).
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M. Soljačić, C. Luo, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. Fan, Opt. Lett. 28, 637 (2003).
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E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001).
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M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213905 (2012).
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K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
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L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y. L. Xu, M. H. Lu, and Y. F. Chen, Science 333, 729 (2011).
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E. Battal, T. A. Yogurt, and A. K. Okyay, Plasmonics 8, 509 (2013).
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L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
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Cakmakyapan, S.

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K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
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Y. D. Xu, C. D. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. S. Li, and H. Y. Chen, Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).

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C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111111 (2007).
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H. Ramezani, T. Kottos, R. El-Ganainy, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043803 (2010).
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L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
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H. Ramezani, T. Kottos, R. El-Ganainy, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043803 (2010).
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L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
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Fan, S.

Fan, Y. X.

C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111111 (2007).
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K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y. L. Xu, M. H. Lu, and Y. F. Chen, Science 333, 729 (2011).
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Gallo, K.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

Gu, C. D.

Y. D. Xu, C. D. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. S. Li, and H. Y. Chen, Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).

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Guo, X.

T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023514 (2007).
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A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 2000).

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X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 084301 (2011).
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C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253902 (2010).
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K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
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Hou, B.

Y. D. Xu, C. D. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. S. Li, and H. Y. Chen, Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).

Hu, J.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. Y.

Huang, J.

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y. L. Xu, M. H. Lu, and Y. F. Chen, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, P.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Kim, D. H.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
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L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
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C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253902 (2010).
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E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001).
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H. Ramezani, T. Kottos, R. El-Ganainy, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043803 (2010).
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Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001).
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Lai, Y.

Y. D. Xu, C. D. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. S. Li, and H. Y. Chen, Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).

Lederer, F.

C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levy, M.

Li, J. S.

Y. D. Xu, C. D. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. S. Li, and H. Y. Chen, Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).

Li, X. F.

X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Liu, K.

Lu, C. C.

Lu, M. H.

X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y. L. Xu, M. H. Lu, and Y. F. Chen, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Luo, Z.

Ma, T.

Menzel, C.

C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253902 (2010).
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E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

X. F. Li, X. Ni, L. Feng, M. H. Lu, C. He, and Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 084301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Niu, B.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. L.

J. L. O’Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. G. White, T. C. Ralph, and D. Branning, Nature 426, 264 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

E. Battal, T. A. Yogurt, and A. K. Okyay, Plasmonics 8, 509 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Cakmakyapan, A. E. Serebryannikov, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Lett. 35, 2597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K. R.

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pryde, G. J.

J. L. O’Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. G. White, T. C. Ralph, and D. Branning, Nature 426, 264 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qi, M.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

J. L. O’Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. G. White, T. C. Ralph, and D. Branning, Nature 426, 264 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramezani, H.

H. Ramezani, T. Kottos, R. El-Ganainy, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F. F.

C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ross, C. A.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Serebryannikov, A. E.

M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Cakmakyapan, A. E. Serebryannikov, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Lett. 35, 2597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Serebryannikov, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 2000).

Tünnermann, A.

C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, L. T.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Wang, H. T.

C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

White, A. G.

J. L. O’Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. G. White, T. C. Ralph, and D. Branning, Nature 426, 264 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q. Y.

C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

Xu, Y. D.

Y. D. Xu, C. D. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. S. Li, and H. Y. Chen, Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).

Xu, Y. L.

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y. L. Xu, M. H. Lu, and Y. F. Chen, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, Y.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, Science 335, 447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

Yang, H.

Ye, W. M.

Yogurt, T. A.

E. Battal, T. A. Yogurt, and A. K. Okyay, Plasmonics 8, 509 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu and S. Fan, Nat. Photonics 3, 91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. D.

Zaman, T. R.

T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, C.

Zhou, C. Z.

Zhu, Z. H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Gallo, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. D. Xu, C. D. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. S. Li, and H. Y. Chen, Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, Nat. Photonics 5, 758 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, Nat. Photonics 3, 91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

J. L. O’Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. G. White, T. C. Ralph, and D. Branning, Nature 426, 264 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. Ramezani, T. Kottos, R. El-Ganainy, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. E. Serebryannikov, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic geometry of the composite grating-PC structure. (b) Simulated transmission spectra of a TM-polarized light in the forward (red solid line) and backward (blue dashed line) directions, respectively. The gray and green slashed regions denote the one-way transmission and full bandgap regions, respectively. (c), (d) Calculated electric-field distributions of light at 1360 nm [see arrow in (b)] in the forward and backward directions, respectively. Blue arrowed lines indicate the direction of the incident light.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated TM-mode band structure of PC. The gray- and green-slashed regions denote the directional bandgap and a full bandgap, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) SEM image of the fabricated grating-PC structure. Inset, an enlarged view. (b) Simulated (forward: red solid line and backward: blue dashed line) and measured transmission spectra (forward: red circle, solid line and backward: blue x dashed line) of light ranging from 1355 to 1375 nm. Inset, simulated (forward: red solid line and backward: blue dashed line) and measured (forward: red circle, solid line and backward: blue x dashed line) transmittance spectra of light ranging from 1470 to 1500 nm. (c) Measured one-way contrast-ratio dependence on the distances between grating and PC. The wavelength of the incident light is at 1360 nm (red square, dotted line), 1370 nm (blue circle, dashed line), and 1375 nm (green asterisk, dashed line), respectively.

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