Abstract

We demonstrate a tunable, optical generation scheme of higher-order modulation formats including pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Using this method, 100.4 Gbit/s 16-QAM and 120 Gbit/s 64-QAM were generated from 50.2 and 40 Gbit/s QPSK signals at EVMs of 7.8% and 6.4%, and 60 Gbit/s 8-PAM were generated at an EVM of 8.1% using three 20-Gbit/s BPSK signals. We also demonstrated a successful transmission of 80 Gbit/s 16-QAM through 80 km SMF-28 after compensating with 20 km DCF. All signals were generated, transmitted, and detected with BER below the forward error correction threshold.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziyadi, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, A. Mohajerin-Ariae, A. Almaiman, J. Touch, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Express 22, 84 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

2010 (1)

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Almaiman, A.

M. Ziyadi, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, A. Mohajerin-Ariae, A. Almaiman, J. Touch, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Express 22, 84 (2014).
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M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, S. Khaleghi, A. Almaiman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, J. Touch, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu1G.2.

Bakhtiari, Z.

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brasch, V.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Charlet, G.

Chitgarha, M. R.

M. Ziyadi, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, A. Mohajerin-Ariae, A. Almaiman, J. Touch, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Express 22, 84 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Bakhtiari, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 3350 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, S. Khaleghi, A. Almaiman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, J. Touch, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu1G.2.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dupuy, J.-Y.

Fejer, M.

M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, S. Khaleghi, A. Almaiman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, J. Touch, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu1G.2.

Fejer, M. M.

Freude, W.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gerstel, O.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Bakhtiari, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 3350 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, S. Khaleghi, A. Almaiman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, J. Touch, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu1G.2.

Gnauck, A. H.

Hartinger, K.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
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Herr, T.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Hillerkuss, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

Huang, H.

X. Wu, J. Wang, H. Huang, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CThH4.

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Jorge, F.

Kawanishi, T.

Khaleghi, S.

M. Ziyadi, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, A. Mohajerin-Ariae, A. Almaiman, J. Touch, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Express 22, 84 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Bakhtiari, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 3350 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, S. Khaleghi, A. Almaiman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, J. Touch, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu1G.2.

Kippenberg, T. J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.-I.

Kobayashi, T.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Koizumi, Y.

Konczykowska, A.

Koos, C.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

M. Ziyadi, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, A. Mohajerin-Ariae, A. Almaiman, J. Touch, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Express 22, 84 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Bakhtiari, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 3350 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, S. Khaleghi, A. Almaiman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, J. Touch, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu1G.2.

Lauermann, M.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G.-W.

Maruta, A.

Masuda, H.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Miyoshi, Y.

Mohajerin-Ariae, A.

Mohajerin-Ariaei, A.

M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, S. Khaleghi, A. Almaiman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, J. Touch, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu1G.2.

Mori, K.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Nakazawa, M.

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paraschis, L.

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Bakhtiari, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 3350 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, S. Khaleghi, A. Almaiman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, J. Touch, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu1G.2.

Peckham, D. W.

Pfeifle, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Riet, M.

Sakamoto, T.

Sano, A.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Schindler, P.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Schmogrow, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Touch, J.

M. Ziyadi, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, A. Mohajerin-Ariae, A. Almaiman, J. Touch, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Express 22, 84 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, S. Khaleghi, A. Almaiman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, J. Touch, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu1G.2.

Toyoda, K.

Tur, M.

Wang, J.

X. Wu, J. Wang, H. Huang, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CThH4.

Wegner, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, C.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

M. Ziyadi, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, A. Mohajerin-Ariae, A. Almaiman, J. Touch, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Express 22, 84 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Bakhtiari, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 3350 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, J. Wang, H. Huang, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CThH4.

M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, S. Khaleghi, A. Almaiman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, J. Touch, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu1G.2.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Wu, X.

X. Wu, J. Wang, H. Huang, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011), paper CThH4.

Yamada, T.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Yamamoto, S.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Yamazaki, E.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Yamazaki, H.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Yoshida, E.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper PD2.4.

Yoshida, M.

Yoshida, Y.

Yu, Y.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, Nat. Photonics 8, 375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

Ziyadi, M.

M. Ziyadi, M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, A. Mohajerin-Ariae, A. Almaiman, J. Touch, M. Tur, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Express 22, 84 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chitgarha, S. Khaleghi, Z. Bakhtiari, M. Ziyadi, O. Gerstel, L. Paraschis, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 38, 3350 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, S. Khaleghi, A. Almaiman, A. Mohajerin-Ariaei, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, C. Langrock, M. Fejer, J. Touch, and A. E. Willner, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu1G.2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conceptual block diagram of a reconfigurable optical PAM/QAM generation scheme. In this configuration, the optical frequency comb fingers are separated into two paths, the signal path and the pump path. The signal path fingers are modulated to BPSK/QPSK signals and then injected into a PPLN waveguide after coupling with the pump fingers. In the PPLN waveguide, the modulated fingers, Si(t)s, interact with the pump fingers Pi(t)s and the CW pump P(t) to generate the output signals at higher-order formats.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Generating (a) 8-PAM, (b) 4-QAM (QPSK) signals using BPSK signals, and (c) 64-QAM using QPSK signals.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for the proposed optical QAM transmitter: a mode-locked laser is used to generate coherent frequency comb fingers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Higher-level modulation format generation using BPSK signals. Optical spectrum of PPLN output when (a) a QPSK signal is generated using two BPSK signals and (b) an 8-PAM signal is generated using three BPSK signals. The constellation diagrams of (c) 40 Gbit/s 4-PAM, (d) 40 Gbit/s QPSK, (e) 60 Gbit/s 8-PAM, (f) 60 Gbit/s type-1 8-QAM, and (g) 60 Gbit/s type-2 8-QAM, with EVMs of 8.1%, 8.3%, 8.2%, 8.5%, and 8.7%, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Square QAM generation using QPSK signals: optical spectrum of PPLN output when (a) a 16-QAM data signal was generated using two 40 Gbit/s QPSK signals and (b) a 64-QAM data signal was generated using three 40 Gbit/s QPSK signals. The constellation diagrams of (c) 80 Gbit/s 16-QAM, (d) 100.4 Gbit/s 16-QAM, and (e) 120 Gbit/s 64-QAM, with EVMs of 6.8%, 7.8%, and 6.4%, respectively. (f) BER assessments of the back-to-back (B2B) QPSK signals, generated 80 Gbit/s and 100.4 Gbit/s 16-QAM signals, and the transmitted 80 Gbit/s 16-QAM signal.

Equations (1)

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SOut(t)=P*(t)×i=1NciPi(t).Si(t),

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