Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate for the first time (to our knowledge) a coherent CW lidar system capable of wind speed measurement at a probing distance beyond the coherence regime of the light source. A side-by-side wind measurement was conducted on the field using two lidar systems with identical optical designs but different laser linewidths. While one system was operating within the coherence regime, the other was measuring at least 2.4 times the coherence range. The probing distance of both lidars is 85 m and the radial wind speed correlation was measured to be r2=0.965 between the two lidars at a sampling rate of 2 Hz. Based on our experimental results, we describe a practical guideline for designing a wind lidar operating beyond the coherence regime.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).
  2. R. Hansen and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 16, 18288 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 480 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Champagne, J. Camel, R. Maciejko, K. Kasunic, D. Adams, and B. Tromborg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1493 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. B. Mercer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 485 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Rodrigo and C. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 8241, 824112 (2012).
  8. Q. Hu, P. J. Rodrigo, T. F. Q. Iversen, and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 21, 25670 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007), p. 411.
  10. T. Fujii and T. Fukuchi, eds. Laser Remote Sensing (CRC Press, 2005), pp. 513–517.
  11. P. J. Rodrigo and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 18, 5320 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. 1, 012051 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

P. J. Rodrigo and C. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 8241, 824112 (2012).

E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Hansen and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 16, 18288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Champagne, J. Camel, R. Maciejko, K. Kasunic, D. Adams, and B. Tromborg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. B. Mercer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D.

A. Champagne, J. Camel, R. Maciejko, K. Kasunic, D. Adams, and B. Tromborg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bossanyi, E.

E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).

Camel, J.

A. Champagne, J. Camel, R. Maciejko, K. Kasunic, D. Adams, and B. Tromborg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carcangiu, C. E.

E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).

Champagne, A.

A. Champagne, J. Camel, R. Maciejko, K. Kasunic, D. Adams, and B. Tromborg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Courtney, M.

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Enevoldsen, K.

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).

Hansen, R.

Harris, M.

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hau, M.

E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).

Hu, Q.

Iribas, M.

E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).

Iversen, T. F. Q.

Karlsson, C. J.

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kasunic, K.

A. Champagne, J. Camel, R. Maciejko, K. Kasunic, D. Adams, and B. Tromborg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Letalick, D.

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maciejko, R.

A. Champagne, J. Camel, R. Maciejko, K. Kasunic, D. Adams, and B. Tromborg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mann, J.

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mercer, L. B.

L. B. Mercer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, T.

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, G. N.

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, C.

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, P. J.

Rossetti, M.

E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007), p. 411.

Savini, B.

E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).

Schlipf, D.

E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).

Sjöholm, M.

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007), p. 411.

Tromborg, B.

A. Champagne, J. Camel, R. Maciejko, K. Kasunic, D. Adams, and B. Tromborg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Engelen, T.

E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).

Vaughan, J. M.

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Champagne, J. Camel, R. Maciejko, K. Kasunic, D. Adams, and B. Tromborg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IOP Conf. Ser. (1)

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. B. Mercer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. J. Rodrigo and C. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 8241, 824112 (2012).

Wind Energy (1)

E. Bossanyi, B. Savini, M. Iribas, M. Hau, B. Fischer, D. Schlipf, T. van Engelen, M. Rossetti, and C. E. Carcangiu, Wind Energy 15, 119 (2012).

Other (2)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007), p. 411.

T. Fujii and T. Fukuchi, eds. Laser Remote Sensing (CRC Press, 2005), pp. 513–517.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic layout of the setup. Lidar1 and Lidar2 are placed side by side with their beams focused a few meters away from the sonic anemometer. The probing distance of each lidar is around 85 m and θ0.3°.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Wind data from both lidar systems in the same timeframe. The update rate of the presented data is 5 Hz. Both plots are normalized to the noise floor of Lidar1. The color intensity represents the Doppler signal strength.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Wind data from Fig. 2 after subtracting a time-varying background, along with data points from two specific timeframes for both Lidar1 and Lidar2. At t=20.8s, the wind profile contains several velocity components, while it is laminar at t=23.2s.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Strength of wind signals from Fig. 3 as a function of time. The solid lines represent the peak values of the wind signals, while the dotted lines are the peak signal averages.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Wind speed comparison between Lidar1, Lidar2, and the sonic sensor over a period of 50 min. The temporal resolution is 0.5 s, and the correlation values for the different cases are: (a) r2=0.965, (b) r2=0.833, and (c) r2=0.862. The experiment was performed during a clear, sunny afternoon at the DTU lidar test site in Roskilde, Denmark.

Equations (1)

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CNR(t)=ηPS(t)hυBF(t),F(t)=1+SD+SPIIN(t),

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