Abstract

We demonstrate an interferometric fiber-optic bending/nano-displacement sensor based on a plastic dual-core fiber. The light coupled into the two fiber cores is first guided along the fiber, and then reflected by the mirror coated at the fiber end. Reflected light coming out of the fiber produces interference that shifts as the fiber bends. The interference shift is interrogated using a slit and a photodetector. The resolution of our sensor is 3×104m1 for sensing the bending curvature, and 70nm for sensing the displacement.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Udd, Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists (Wiley, 2006).
  2. Y. Fu, H. Di, and R. Liu, Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 594 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. S. C. Kuang, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1523 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Fu and H. Di, Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 586 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, Opt. Lett. 21, 692 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y.-S. Yu, Z.-Y. Zhao, Z.-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y.-S. Zhang, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Chen, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C.-Y. Lin and L. A. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1159 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. Webb, Electron. Lett. 40, 657 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Patrick and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
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  11. Y. Gong, T. Zhao, J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
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2011 (6)

Y. Fu and H. Di, Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Silva, O. Fraza, J. Viegas, F. M. Araujo, F. X. Malcata, and J. L. Santos, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 085201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, J. Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hernandez, A. Martinez-Rio, I. Torres-Gomez, and G. Salceda-Delgado, Opt. Lett. 36, 4380 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Silva, M. S. Ferreira, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and O. Frazao, Opt. Lett. 36, 3939 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

W. Shi, Y. L. Lee, B. Yu, Y. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, J. Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao, S. Silva, J. Viegas, J. Baptista, J. Santos, J. Kobelke, and K. Shuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Di, and R. Liu, Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Yang, L. Yuan, X. Zu, Y. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Dai, and F. Tian, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70040Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. Webb, Electron. Lett. 40, 657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Yu, Z.-Y. Zhao, Z.-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y.-S. Zhang, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. S. C. Kuang, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. J. Patrick and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1979 (1)

Ahn, T. J.

W. Shi, Y. L. Lee, B. Yu, Y. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, J. Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Araujo, F. M.

S. Silva, O. Fraza, J. Viegas, F. M. Araujo, F. X. Malcata, and J. L. Santos, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 085201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J.

O. Frazao, S. Silva, J. Viegas, J. Baptista, J. Santos, J. Kobelke, and K. Shuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernett, J. G.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

Blanchard, P. M.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cantwell, W. J.

K. S. C. Kuang, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

J. Yang, L. Yuan, X. Zu, Y. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Dai, and F. Tian, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70040Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deng, M.

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, J. Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Di, H.

Y. Fu and H. Di, Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Di, and R. Liu, Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dobb, H.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. Webb, Electron. Lett. 40, 657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drolet, D.

Feldman, A.

Ferreira, M. S.

Fraza, O.

S. Silva, O. Fraza, J. Viegas, F. M. Araujo, F. X. Malcata, and J. L. Santos, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 085201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Frazao, O.

R. M. Silva, M. S. Ferreira, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and O. Frazao, Opt. Lett. 36, 3939 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao, S. Silva, J. Viegas, J. Baptista, J. Santos, J. Kobelke, and K. Shuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu and H. Di, Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Di, and R. Liu, Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gander, M. J.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, A. H.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, P.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, D. M.

Jones, J. D. C.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kalli, K.

X. Chen, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. Webb, Electron. Lett. 40, 657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobelke, J.

R. M. Silva, M. S. Ferreira, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and O. Frazao, Opt. Lett. 36, 3939 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao, S. Silva, J. Viegas, J. Baptista, J. Santos, J. Kobelke, and K. Shuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, K. S. C.

K. S. C. Kuang, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. L.

W. Shi, Y. L. Lee, B. Yu, Y. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, J. Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-Y.

Liu, B.

J. Yang, L. Yuan, X. Zu, Y. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Dai, and F. Tian, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70040Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

Y. Fu, H. Di, and R. Liu, Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Malcata, F. X.

S. Silva, O. Fraza, J. Viegas, F. M. Araujo, F. X. Malcata, and J. L. Santos, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 085201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Rio, A.

McBride, R.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y.

W. Shi, Y. L. Lee, B. Yu, Y. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, J. Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G. D.

X. Chen, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qian, Y.

Y.-S. Yu, Z.-Y. Zhao, Z.-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y.-S. Zhang, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rao, J.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y.-J.

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, J. Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salceda-Delgado, G.

Santos, J.

O. Frazao, S. Silva, J. Viegas, J. Baptista, J. Santos, J. Kobelke, and K. Shuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

S. Silva, O. Fraza, J. Viegas, F. M. Araujo, F. X. Malcata, and J. L. Santos, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 085201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

Scully, P. J.

K. S. C. Kuang, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

W. Shi, Y. L. Lee, B. Yu, Y. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, J. Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shuster, K.

O. Frazao, S. Silva, J. Viegas, J. Baptista, J. Santos, J. Kobelke, and K. Shuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Silva, R. M.

Silva, S.

S. Silva, O. Fraza, J. Viegas, F. M. Araujo, F. X. Malcata, and J. L. Santos, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 085201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao, S. Silva, J. Viegas, J. Baptista, J. Santos, J. Kobelke, and K. Shuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Tang, C.-P.

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, J. Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tian, F.

J. Yang, L. Yuan, X. Zu, Y. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Dai, and F. Tian, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70040Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torres-Gomez, I.

Udd, E.

E. Udd, Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists (Wiley, 2006).

Vallee, R.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Viegas, J.

S. Silva, O. Fraza, J. Viegas, F. M. Araujo, F. X. Malcata, and J. L. Santos, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 085201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao, S. Silva, J. Viegas, J. Baptista, J. Santos, J. Kobelke, and K. Shuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, S. T.

H. J. Patrick and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. A.

Waxler, R.

Webb, D.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. Webb, Electron. Lett. 40, 657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

X. Chen, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, L. Yuan, X. Zu, Y. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Dai, and F. Tian, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70040Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Sun, Opt. Lett. 31, 2692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.

W. Shi, Y. L. Lee, B. Yu, Y. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, J. Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Yu, Z.-Y. Zhao, Z.-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y.-S. Zhang, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

J. Yang, L. Yuan, X. Zu, Y. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Dai, and F. Tian, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70040Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Sun, Opt. Lett. 31, 2692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Yang, L. Yuan, X. Zu, Y. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Dai, and F. Tian, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70040Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

J. Yang, L. Yuan, X. Zu, Y. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Dai, and F. Tian, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70040Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Yu, Z.-Y. Zhao, Z.-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y.-S. Zhang, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.-Y.

Y.-S. Yu, Z.-Y. Zhao, Z.-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y.-S. Zhang, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W.

Y.-S. Yu, Z.-Y. Zhao, Z.-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y.-S. Zhang, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, J. Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhuo, Z.-C.

Y.-S. Yu, Z.-Y. Zhao, Z.-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y.-S. Zhang, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zu, X.

J. Yang, L. Yuan, X. Zu, Y. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Dai, and F. Tian, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70040Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. Webb, Electron. Lett. 40, 657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, J. Rao, and Y. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao, S. Silva, J. Viegas, J. Baptista, J. Santos, J. Kobelke, and K. Shuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Deng, C.-P. Tang, T. Zhu, and Y.-J. Rao, J. Opt. Commun. 284, 2849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, Y. L. Lee, B. Yu, Y. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, J. Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

S. Silva, O. Fraza, J. Viegas, F. M. Araujo, F. X. Malcata, and J. L. Santos, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 085201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. S. C. Kuang, W. J. Cantwell, and P. J. Scully, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y.-S. Yu, Z.-Y. Zhao, Z.-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y.-S. Zhang, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

Y. Fu and H. Di, Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Di, and R. Liu, Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Yang, L. Yuan, X. Zu, Y. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Dai, and F. Tian, Proc. SPIE 7004, 70040Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Bernett, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

http://www.sensorica.co/home/what-we-do/projects/optical-fiber-coating .

http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Polycarbonate.html .

E. Udd, Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists (Wiley, 2006).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MP4 (3742 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the dual-core fiber bent in the X–Z plane. The inset shows the fiber cross section with one of its cores lit up. R is the fiber bending curvature; Λ is the distance between the two cores; d is the displacement of the fiber tip.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the dual-core fiber sensor setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical interferogram generated by the two-core fiber-based bending sensor (Media 1).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Number of shifted fringes recorded in the experiment (blue line) and calculated by Eq. (4) (black line). (b) Bending curvature of the fiber as the fiber tip is displaced.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Intensity variations measured by a photodiode detector for fiber displacements of (a) 20 μm, (b) 40 μm, and (c) 60 μm with a speed of 1 μm/s. (d) Intensity variation while the fiber is displaced step-by-step from 0 to 20 μm with 0.2 μm steps.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Intensity variations as a function of the weight of salt particles. (b) Intensity variations as isopropanol evaporates from a textile thread. (c) Changes in weight as isopropanol evaporates.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δϕ2k0[(lδn1+nδl1)(lδn2+nδl2)]2k0nl[(δn1δn2)/n+(δl1δl2)/l],
(δl1δl2)/l=Λ/R,
(δn1δn2)/n=CΛn2/2R,
δϕ=8πn(1Cn2/2)·(d/l)·(Λ/λ).
1δϕδϕT=1nnT(13Cn2/21Cn2/2)=4.0·105K1.

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