Abstract

We show that the increasingly popular nonlinear optical technique of time-domain coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), which is often viewed from the dynamical perspective of the semiclassical time-dependent third-order polarization, can also be studied by means of the time-delayed version of the Yuratich equation, so popular in traditional frequency-domain CARS. The method proves successful in explaining experimental results that are otherwise treated by means of numerical methods only.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. B. D. Prince, A. Chakraborty, B. M. Prince, and H. U. Stauffer, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 044502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, Opt. Commun. 264, 488 (2006).
  4. D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. R. Selm, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, G. Krauss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Lett. 35, 3282 (2010).
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  8. S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280 (2010).
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  9. J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, and T. R. Meyer, Opt. Express 19, 13326 (2011).
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  17. S. Roy, P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, W. D. Kulatilaka, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 024201 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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  28. R. Compton, A. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154517 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]

2014

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, B. D. Prince, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Upputuri, L. Gong, and H. Wang, Opt. Express 22, 9611 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

2012

C. J. Kliewer, A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 108, 419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. J. Kliewer, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 111101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Lütgens, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, and S. Lochbrunner, Opt. Express 20, 6478 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2008

Y. J. Lee and M. T. Cicerone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Compton, A. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. D. Prince, A. Chakraborty, B. M. Prince, and H. U. Stauffer, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 044502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, Opt. Commun. 264, 488 (2006).

2002

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1986

D. A. Greenhalgh and R. J. Hall, Opt. Commun. 57, 125 (1986).

1985

1984

1979

M. A. Yuratich, Mol. Phys. 38, 625 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ariunbold, G. O.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, P.-E.

C. J. Kliewer, A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 108, 419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. J. Kliewer, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bohlin, A.

A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. J. Kliewer, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Kliewer, A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 108, 419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Book, L. D.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

B. D. Prince, A. Chakraborty, B. M. Prince, and H. U. Stauffer, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 044502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chatzipapadopoulos, S.

Cicerone, M. T.

Y. J. Lee and M. T. Cicerone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Compton, R.

R. Compton, A. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon & Breach Science, 1996).

Farrow, R. L.

Filin, A.

R. Compton, A. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Gong, L.

Gord, J. R.

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, B. D. Prince, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Richardson, R. P. Lucht, W. D. Kulatilaka, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 188 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, W. D. Kulatilaka, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 024201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, W. D. Kulatilaka, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 024201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 111101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Lett. 35, 2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greenhalgh, D. A.

D. A. Greenhalgh and R. J. Hall, Opt. Commun. 57, 125 (1986).

D. A. Greenhalgh, in Advances in Non-Linear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark and R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, 1988).

Hall, R. J.

D. A. Greenhalgh and R. J. Hall, Opt. Commun. 57, 125 (1986).

Hanke, T.

Hsu, P. S.

S. Roy, P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, W. D. Kulatilaka, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 024201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

S. Roy, P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, W. D. Kulatilaka, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 024201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kearney, S. P.

Kliewer, C. J.

S. P. Kearney, D. J. Scoglietti, and C. J. Kliewer, Opt. Express 21, 12327 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Patterson, Y. Gao, T. Seeger, and C. J. Kliewer, Opt. Lett. 38, 4566 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. J. Kliewer, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Kliewer, A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 108, 419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, G.

Kulatilaka, W. D.

D. R. Richardson, R. P. Lucht, W. D. Kulatilaka, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 188 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, W. D. Kulatilaka, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 024201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee and M. T. Cicerone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Levis, R. J.

R. Compton, A. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lochbrunner, S.

Lucht, R. P.

Lütgens, M.

Meyer, T. R.

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, B. D. Prince, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 111101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, and T. R. Meyer, Opt. Express 19, 13326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Lett. 35, 2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. D.

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, B. D. Prince, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 111101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, and T. R. Meyer, Opt. Express 19, 13326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Lett. 35, 2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Motzkus, M.

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, Opt. Commun. 264, 488 (2006).

Mukamel, S.

S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford University, 1995).

Murawski, R. K.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nordström, E.

C. J. Kliewer, A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 108, 419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. J. Kliewer, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oron, D.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Patnaik, A. K.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, B. D.

B. D. Patterson, Y. Gao, T. Seeger, and C. J. Kliewer, Opt. Lett. 38, 4566 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. J. Kliewer, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Kliewer, A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 108, 419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pestov, D.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prince, B. D.

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, B. D. Prince, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Prince, A. Chakraborty, B. M. Prince, and H. U. Stauffer, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 044502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prince, B. M.

B. D. Prince, A. Chakraborty, B. M. Prince, and H. U. Stauffer, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 044502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, L. A.

Richardson, D. R.

Romanov, D. A.

R. Compton, A. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, B. D. Prince, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Richardson, R. P. Lucht, W. D. Kulatilaka, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 188 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, W. D. Kulatilaka, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 024201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 111101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scoglietti, D. J.

Scully, M. O.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seeger, T.

Sell, A.

Selm, R.

Settersten, T. B.

C. J. Kliewer, A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 108, 419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slipchenko, M. N.

Sokolov, A. V.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stauffer, H. U.

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, B. D. Prince, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, W. D. Kulatilaka, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 024201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 111101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Lett. 35, 2430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Prince, A. Chakraborty, B. M. Prince, and H. U. Stauffer, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 044502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teets, R. E.

Upputuri, P. K.

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

von Vacano, B.

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, Opt. Commun. 264, 488 (2006).

Wang, H.

Wang, X.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winterhalder, M.

Xie, X. S.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, D.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuratich, M. A.

M. A. Yuratich, Mol. Phys. 38, 625 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zhi, M.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, Science 316, 265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

Appl. Phys. B

C. J. Kliewer, A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Phys. B 108, 419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee and M. T. Cicerone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

B. D. Prince, A. Chakraborty, B. M. Prince, and H. U. Stauffer, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 044502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bohlin, E. Nordström, B. D. Patterson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. J. Kliewer, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 111101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Compton, A. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, W. D. Kulatilaka, H. U. Stauffer, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 024201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Stauffer, J. D. Miller, M. N. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, B. D. Prince, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Mol. Phys.

M. A. Yuratich, Mol. Phys. 38, 625 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

D. A. Greenhalgh and R. J. Hall, Opt. Commun. 57, 125 (1986).

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, Opt. Commun. 264, 488 (2006).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulation of the time-domain CARS signal of benzaldehyde. The simulation includes the contribution of the nonresonant CARS component as well as the finite bandwidth of Gaussian pump and Stokes pulses. The result agrees with the measurements and the numerical solution of the time-dependent model reported by Volkmer et al. [1].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) N2 time traces for the RectW(ω) probe of Table 1 with W=12.2cm1 and centered at 2308 and 2324cm1. (b) DANS spectrum for the RectW(ω) probe of Table 1 with W=15.4cm1 (parameters are from Stauffer et al. [18]).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulation of the time-domain spectrum of benzonitrile measured by Selm et al. [7].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Probe Fields and Their Corresponding Third-Order Polarizations for CARS Generation

Equations (8)

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P(3)(t,τ)=E3(t)0dt˜ei(ω1ω2)t˜χ(3)(t˜)×E1(t+τt˜)E2*(t+τt˜),
PCARS(3)(ωaS,τ12,τ23)eiω1τ12eiωτ23×E1(ω1)E2*(ω1ω)E3(δaSω)ΔωiΓ/2dω1dω,
PCARS(3)(ωaS,τ)eiωτE3(δaSω)ΔωiΓ/2dω.
θ(τ)e(Γ/2+iΔ)τ+θ(τ)e(γ/2iδaS)τΔδaSi(Γ+γ)/2
tpr2Sinc(ωtpr/2)
eiδaSτzS(ωaS,τ)
e(Γ/2+iΔ)τSech(πz)+2eiδaSτeτ/tprF(ωaS,τ)π(1+2iz)
SGG(ωaS,τ)e(δaSΔ)2/σ2eΓτ|Erfc(iζ)|2,

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