Abstract

Liquid crystal-filled photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are promising candidates for electrically tunable integrated photonic devices. In this Letter, we present group velocity measurements on such fibers. A large mode area PCF, LMA8, was infiltrated with the liquid crystal mixture, E7. The measurements were performed with an interferometric setup. The fiber exhibits several spectral transmission windows in the visible wavelength regime that originate from the bandgap guiding mechanism. The dispersion of these windows is very unusual compared to typical fibers. Our measurements show that it can change from 2500pskm1nm1 to +2500pskm1nm1 within a spectral range of only 15 nm. This leads to multiple zero dispersion wavelengths in the visible wavelength range.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. S. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

B. Kuhlmey, B. Eggleton, and D. Wu, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Wei, L. Eskildsen, J. Weirich, L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, Appl. Opt. 48, 497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tefelska, M. Chychlowski, T. R. Wolinski, R. Dkabrowski, and J. Wójcik, Photon. Lett. Poland 1, 97 (2009).

D. J. J. Hu, P. Shum, C. Lu, X. Sun, G. Ren, X. Yu, and G. Wang, Opt. Commun. 282, 2343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2006 (4)

P. S. J. Russell, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. Renversez, P. Boyer, and A. Sagrini, Opt. Express 14, 5682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

H. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. Crooker, Phys. Rev. E 54, 568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2155 (1992).

Alkeskjold, T.

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Anawati, A.

Argyros, A.

Bang, O.

Banzer, P.

Bartelt, H.

Bird, D. M.

Biriukov, A. S.

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

Bolger, J. A.

Bondarczuk, K.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, K. Bondarczuk, P. Lesiak, and A. W. Domañski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 13, 177 (2005).

Boyer, P.

Brenn, A.

Broeng, J.

Buck, J. A.

J. A. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers (Wiley, 1995).

Chigrinov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2155 (1992).

Chychlowski, M.

M. Tefelska, M. Chychlowski, T. R. Wolinski, R. Dkabrowski, and J. Wójcik, Photon. Lett. Poland 1, 97 (2009).

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Crooker, P.

H. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. Crooker, Phys. Rev. E 54, 568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Da, N.

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. S. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, R.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C.

de Sterke, C. M.

Denisov, A. N.

Dianov, E. M.

Dkabrowski, R.

M. Tefelska, M. Chychlowski, T. R. Wolinski, R. Dkabrowski, and J. Wójcik, Photon. Lett. Poland 1, 97 (2009).

Domanski, A. W.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Domañski, A. W.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, K. Bondarczuk, P. Lesiak, and A. W. Domañski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 13, 177 (2005).

Dunn, S.

Dunn, S. C.

Eggleton, B.

Eggleton, B. J.

Egorova, O. N.

Elser, D.

Ertman, S.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eskildsen, L.

Euser, T. G.

Förtsch, M.

Fuerbach, A.

Gabriel, C.

Gaponov, D. A.

George, A. K.

Granzow, N.

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. S. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gurianov, A. N.

Hedley, T. D.

Hermann, D.

Hu, D. J. J.

D. J. J. Hu, P. Shum, C. Lu, X. Sun, G. Ren, X. Yu, and G. Wang, Opt. Commun. 282, 2343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N. Y.

Khopin, V. F.

Kitzerow, H.

H. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. Crooker, Phys. Rev. E 54, 568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kitzerow, H.-S.

A. Lorenz and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Lorenz, R. Schuhmann, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Opt. Express 18, 3519 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lorenz, H.-S. Kitzerow, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Express 16, 19375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Kitzerow, in Handbook of Liquid Crystals, J. W. Goodby, P. J. Collings, H. Gleeson, T. Kato, P. Raynes, and C. Tschierske, eds., 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2014), Vol. 8, Chap. 13, pp. 373–426.

Knight, J. C.

Kobelke, J.

Kosolapov, A. F.

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2155 (1992).

Kriezis, E.

Kriezis, E. E.

Kuhlmey, B.

Kuksenkov, D. V.

Laegsgaard, J.

Larsen, T.

Lesiak, P.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, K. Bondarczuk, P. Lesiak, and A. W. Domañski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 13, 177 (2005).

Leuchs, G.

Li, J.

Litchinitser, N.

Litchinitser, N. M.

Liu, B.

H. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. Crooker, Phys. Rev. E 54, 568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, A.

Lu, C.

D. J. J. Hu, P. Shum, C. Lu, X. Sun, G. Ren, X. Yu, and G. Wang, Opt. Commun. 282, 2343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

Marquardt, C.

McPhedran, R.

McPhedran, R. C.

Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nulsen, A.

Pearce, G. J.

Pitilakis, A. K.

Pryamikov, A. D.

Rasmussen, P. D.

Ren, G.

D. J. J. Hu, P. Shum, C. Lu, X. Sun, G. Ren, X. Yu, and G. Wang, Opt. Commun. 282, 2343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Renversez, G.

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. S. J.

Sagrini, A.

Salganskii, M. Y.

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2155 (1992).

Scharrer, M.

Schmidt, M. A.

Schmitt, K.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2155 (1992).

Schuhmann, R.

Schwuchow, A.

Scolari, L.

Semjonov, S. L.

Shum, P.

D. J. J. Hu, P. Shum, C. Lu, X. Sun, G. Ren, X. Yu, and G. Wang, Opt. Commun. 282, 2343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

Sun, X.

D. J. J. Hu, P. Shum, C. Lu, X. Sun, G. Ren, X. Yu, and G. Wang, Opt. Commun. 282, 2343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Szaniawska, K.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, K. Bondarczuk, P. Lesiak, and A. W. Domañski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 13, 177 (2005).

Tefelska, M.

M. Tefelska, M. Chychlowski, T. R. Wolinski, R. Dkabrowski, and J. Wójcik, Photon. Lett. Poland 1, 97 (2009).

Tsiboukis, T.

Usner, B.

Wang, G.

D. J. J. Hu, P. Shum, C. Lu, X. Sun, G. Ren, X. Yu, and G. Wang, Opt. Commun. 282, 2343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

Weirich, J.

White, T.

White, T. P.

Wojcik, J.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wójcik, J.

M. Tefelska, M. Chychlowski, T. R. Wolinski, R. Dkabrowski, and J. Wójcik, Photon. Lett. Poland 1, 97 (2009).

Wolinski, T. R.

M. Tefelska, M. Chychlowski, T. R. Wolinski, R. Dkabrowski, and J. Wójcik, Photon. Lett. Poland 1, 97 (2009).

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, K. Bondarczuk, P. Lesiak, and A. W. Domañski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 13, 177 (2005).

Wondraczek, L.

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. S. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Wu, S.-T.

Xu, F.

H. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. Crooker, Phys. Rev. E 54, 568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yashkov, M. V.

Yu, X.

D. J. J. Hu, P. Shum, C. Lu, X. Sun, G. Ren, X. Yu, and G. Wang, Opt. Commun. 282, 2343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zang, L. Y.

Zografopoulos, D.

Zografopoulos, D. C.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Lorenz and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

N. Da, L. Wondraczek, M. A. Schmidt, N. Granzow, and P. S. J. Russell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2155 (1992).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. J. J. Hu, P. Shum, C. Lu, X. Sun, G. Ren, X. Yu, and G. Wang, Opt. Commun. 282, 2343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (11)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, K. Bondarczuk, P. Lesiak, and A. W. Domañski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 13, 177 (2005).

Photon. Lett. Poland (1)

M. Tefelska, M. Chychlowski, T. R. Wolinski, R. Dkabrowski, and J. Wójcik, Photon. Lett. Poland 1, 97 (2009).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. Crooker, Phys. Rev. E 54, 568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H.-S. Kitzerow, in Handbook of Liquid Crystals, J. W. Goodby, P. J. Collings, H. Gleeson, T. Kato, P. Raynes, and C. Tschierske, eds., 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2014), Vol. 8, Chap. 13, pp. 373–426.

J. A. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers (Wiley, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of a solid core PCF: air holes (white) in a silica background material (gray). (b) Enlargement of the periodic cladding with inclusion diameter, d, and lattice pitch, Λ.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mach–Zehnder interferometer for measuring the pulse delay. M, mirror; BS, beamsplitter; Col, collimator; Si PD, silicon photodiode. The delay of the upper path is adjustable by a moving stage.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Measured group delay, τ, (circles) and fitted Sellmeier curve (solid black line). The gray line represents the measured normalized intensity. (b) Dispersion, D, calculated from the Sellmeier fit for LMA8 filled with E7 (solid). For comparison, the dispersion of an unfilled (air filled) LMA8 (dashed) is plotted.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

vg=(βω)1=c(neffλneffλ)1,
GVD=vg1ω=2βω2.
D=λ22πcGVD.
D=vg1λ=1Lτλ.
neff21=iaiλ2λ2λi2,
τ=Lvg=Lc(neffλneffλ).

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