Abstract

We study quantum correlation and interference of fiber-based telecom-band photon pairs with one photon of the pair experiencing multiple scattering in a random medium. We measure joint probability of two-photon detection for signal photon in a normal channel and idler photon in a channel, which is subjected to two independent conditions: standard loss (neutral density filter) and random media. We observe that both conditions degrade the correlation of signal and idler photons, and depolarization of the idler photon in random medium can enhance two-photon interference at certain relative polarization angles. Our theoretical calculation on two-photon polarization correlation and interference as a function of mean free path is in agreement with our experiment data. We conclude that quantum correlation of a polarization-entangled photon pair is better preserved than a polarization-correlated photon pair as one photon of the pair scatters through a random medium.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Semenov and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023835 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Capraro, A. Tomaello, A. Dall’Arche, F. Gerlin, R. Ursin, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 200502 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Yu. Vasylyev, A. A. Semenov, and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 220501 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. V. da Cunha Pereira, L. A. P. Filpi, and C. H. Monken, Phys. Rev. A 88, 053836 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Aiello and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090406 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. M. Sua, J. Malowicki, M. Hirano, and K. F. Lee, Opt. Lett. 38, 73 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013

M. V. da Cunha Pereira, L. A. P. Filpi, and C. H. Monken, Phys. Rev. A 88, 053836 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Sua, J. Malowicki, M. Hirano, and K. F. Lee, Opt. Lett. 38, 73 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

I. Capraro, A. Tomaello, A. Dall’Arche, F. Gerlin, R. Ursin, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 200502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Yu. Vasylyev, A. A. Semenov, and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 220501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

A. A. Semenov and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023835 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. A. Semenov and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 021802(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Puentes, A. Aiello, D. Voigt, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

X. Li, C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 73, 052301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, J. Chen, C. Liang, X. Li, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 31, 1905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Aiello and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Carter, C. G. Peterson, and R. J. Hughes, J. Opt. B 6, S742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, A.

G. Puentes, A. Aiello, D. Voigt, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Aiello and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Altepeter, J. B.

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Antonelli, C.

Berglund, A. J.

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brodsky, M.

Capraro, I.

I. Capraro, A. Tomaello, A. Dall’Arche, F. Gerlin, R. Ursin, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 200502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. H.

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Carter, C. G. Peterson, and R. J. Hughes, J. Opt. B 6, S742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

K. F. Lee, J. Chen, C. Liang, X. Li, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 31, 1905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 73, 052301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

da Cunha Pereira, M. V.

M. V. da Cunha Pereira, L. A. P. Filpi, and C. H. Monken, Phys. Rev. A 88, 053836 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dall’Arche, A.

I. Capraro, A. Tomaello, A. Dall’Arche, F. Gerlin, R. Ursin, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 200502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Filpi, L. A. P.

M. V. da Cunha Pereira, L. A. P. Filpi, and C. H. Monken, Phys. Rev. A 88, 053836 (2013).
[CrossRef]

George, K. E.

Gerlin, F.

I. Capraro, A. Tomaello, A. Dall’Arche, F. Gerlin, R. Ursin, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 200502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

Hughes, R. J.

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Carter, C. G. Peterson, and R. J. Hughes, J. Opt. B 6, S742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

X. Li, C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 73, 052301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, J. Chen, C. Liang, X. Li, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 31, 1905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. F.

Li, X.

K. F. Lee, J. Chen, C. Liang, X. Li, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 31, 1905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 73, 052301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C.

X. Li, C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 73, 052301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, J. Chen, C. Liang, X. Li, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 31, 1905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malowicki, J.

Milonni, P. W.

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Carter, C. G. Peterson, and R. J. Hughes, J. Opt. B 6, S742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monken, C. H.

M. V. da Cunha Pereira, L. A. P. Filpi, and C. H. Monken, Phys. Rev. A 88, 053836 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, C. G.

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Carter, C. G. Peterson, and R. J. Hughes, J. Opt. B 6, S742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Puentes, G.

G. Puentes, A. Aiello, D. Voigt, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A. A.

D. Yu. Vasylyev, A. A. Semenov, and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 220501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Semenov and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023835 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Semenov and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 021802(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shtaif, M.

Sua, Y. M.

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tomaello, A.

I. Capraro, A. Tomaello, A. Dall’Arche, F. Gerlin, R. Ursin, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 200502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ursin, R.

I. Capraro, A. Tomaello, A. Dall’Arche, F. Gerlin, R. Ursin, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 200502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vallone, G.

I. Capraro, A. Tomaello, A. Dall’Arche, F. Gerlin, R. Ursin, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 200502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vasylyev, D. Yu.

D. Yu. Vasylyev, A. A. Semenov, and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 220501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

I. Capraro, A. Tomaello, A. Dall’Arche, F. Gerlin, R. Ursin, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 200502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, W.

D. Yu. Vasylyev, A. A. Semenov, and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 220501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Semenov and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023835 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Semenov and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 021802(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, D.

G. Puentes, A. Aiello, D. Voigt, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Voss, P. L.

X. Li, C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 73, 052301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, J. Chen, C. Liang, X. Li, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 31, 1905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, A. G.

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

G. Puentes, A. Aiello, D. Voigt, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Aiello and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Carter, C. G. Peterson, and R. J. Hughes, J. Opt. B 6, S742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

G. Puentes, A. Aiello, D. Voigt, and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 73, 052301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. V. da Cunha Pereira, L. A. P. Filpi, and C. H. Monken, Phys. Rev. A 88, 053836 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Semenov and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 021802(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Semenov and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023835 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. Capraro, A. Tomaello, A. Dall’Arche, F. Gerlin, R. Ursin, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 200502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Yu. Vasylyev, A. A. Semenov, and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 220501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Aiello and J. P. Woerdman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. G. Kwiat, A. J. Berglund, J. B. Altepeter, and A. G. White, Science 290, 498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experiment setup for measuring CAR and two-photon interference of the signal photon in a normal channel and the idler photon experiencing multiple scattering events.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured visibility of two-photon interference (blue boxes), CAR estimate visibility (crosses), and maximum CAR (solid circles) versus standard losses. Inset: coincidence to accidental ratio (CAR) versus pump power with different attenuations. Green squares = 1 dB, blue diamonds = 3 dB, red dots = 5 dB.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Maximum coincidence to accidental ratio (CAR) versus scattering mean free path. The CAR of 23 is for the standard loss of 3 dB (solid red line). Inset: coincidence to accidental ratio (CAR) versus pump power with different scattering mean free path (). Blue dots, 1=0.019m; green diamonds, 2=0.010m; black circles, 3=0.004m; red squares, 4=0.003m.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Vent (blue squares) and Vcor (red dots) versus scattering mean free path, the solid blue and red lines are fitting curves for Vent and Vcor. The dashed line is the visibility measured with 3 dB standard loss. Inset: two-photon interference fringes (blue squares) versus relative angle for scattering random medium, 3=0.004m with HNLF at 300 K. The red dotted line is the theoretical plot of two-photon interference fringe.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a^20=Ti,xa^i,xx^+Ti,ya^i,yy^+(Li,x+Li,y)c^e^,
a^2=a^20·e^=Ti,xa^i,xcosθ2+Ti,ya^i,ysinθ2+(Li,x+Li,y)c^.
Pcor=Ti22cos2θ2cos2θ1+2Li2+2TiLicosθ2cosθ1
Pent=12[Ti22cos2(θ2θ1)+8Li2+4TiLicos(θ2θ1)],
CcAc=Ti2+4Li2+4TiLi4Li2+4TiLi.
Vcor=Ti2Ti2+8Li2+8TiLi.
Vent=Ti2Ti2+32Li2.

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