Abstract

We have developed a new easy-to-use probe that can be used to combine atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). We show that, using this device, the evanescent field, obtained by total internal reflection conditions in a prism, can be visualized by approaching the surface with the scanning tip. Furthermore, we were able to obtain simultaneous AFM and SNOM images of a standard test grating in air and in liquid. The lateral resolution in AFM and SNOM mode was estimated to be 45 and 160 nm, respectively. This new probe overcomes a number of limitations that commercial probes have, while yielding the same resolution.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Jalili and K. Laxminarayana, Mechatronics 14, 907 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Heinzelmann and D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89101 (1994).
  3. B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
  4. J. Kim and K.-B. Song, Micron 38, 409 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Höppener, D. Molenda, H. Fuchs, and A. Naber, J. Microsc. 210, 288 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. Figdor, N. van Hulst, and M. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, K. Homma, T. Ataka, M. Shigeno, H. Monobe, and M. Fujihira, Ultramicroscopy 71, 73 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Mnster, E. Oesterschulze, and R. Kassing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. N. Minh, T. Ono, H. Watanabe, S. S. Lee, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3020 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, P. Baschieri, C. Menozzi, D. Chavan, and D. Iannuzzi, J. Microsc. 242, 10 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053501 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Chavan, G. Gruca, S. de Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123702 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Chavan, T. C. van de Watering, G. Gruca, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 115110 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Declaration of interest: D. Iannuzzi is share-holder of Optics11 B.V.
  18. P. Zahl, M. Bierkandt, S. Schroder, and A. Klust, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1222 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, and G. Tarrach, Appl. Opt. 33, 7995 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2012

D. Chavan, T. C. van de Watering, G. Gruca, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 115110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, P. Baschieri, C. Menozzi, D. Chavan, and D. Iannuzzi, J. Microsc. 242, 10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, S. de Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Kim and K.-B. Song, Micron 38, 409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

N. Jalili and K. Laxminarayana, Mechatronics 14, 907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. Figdor, N. van Hulst, and M. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Höppener, D. Molenda, H. Fuchs, and A. Naber, J. Microsc. 210, 288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Zahl, M. Bierkandt, S. Schroder, and A. Klust, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. N. Minh, T. Ono, H. Watanabe, S. S. Lee, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3020 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).

1998

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, K. Homma, T. Ataka, M. Shigeno, H. Monobe, and M. Fujihira, Ultramicroscopy 71, 73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Mnster, E. Oesterschulze, and R. Kassing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

H. Heinzelmann and D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89101 (1994).

A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, and G. Tarrach, Appl. Opt. 33, 7995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andres, D.

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ataka, T.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, K. Homma, T. Ataka, M. Shigeno, H. Monobe, and M. Fujihira, Ultramicroscopy 71, 73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baschieri, P.

B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, P. Baschieri, C. Menozzi, D. Chavan, and D. Iannuzzi, J. Microsc. 242, 10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bierkandt, M.

P. Zahl, M. Bierkandt, S. Schroder, and A. Klust, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bopp, M. A.

Cambi, A.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. Figdor, N. van Hulst, and M. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chavan, D.

D. Chavan, T. C. van de Watering, G. Gruca, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 115110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, P. Baschieri, C. Menozzi, D. Chavan, and D. Iannuzzi, J. Microsc. 242, 10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, S. de Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, N.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, K. Homma, T. Ataka, M. Shigeno, H. Monobe, and M. Fujihira, Ultramicroscopy 71, 73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Bakker, B.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. Figdor, N. van Hulst, and M. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Man, S.

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, S. de Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deckert, V.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).

Deladi, S.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elwenspoek, M. C.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Esashi, M.

P. N. Minh, T. Ono, H. Watanabe, S. S. Lee, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3020 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Figdor, C.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. Figdor, N. van Hulst, and M. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.

C. Höppener, D. Molenda, H. Fuchs, and A. Naber, J. Microsc. 210, 288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujihira, M.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, K. Homma, T. Ataka, M. Shigeno, H. Monobe, and M. Fujihira, Ultramicroscopy 71, 73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gadgil, V. J.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Parajo, M.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. Figdor, N. van Hulst, and M. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gruca, G.

D. Chavan, T. C. van de Watering, G. Gruca, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 115110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, S. de Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haga, Y.

P. N. Minh, T. Ono, H. Watanabe, S. S. Lee, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3020 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).

Heeck, K.

D. Chavan, T. C. van de Watering, G. Gruca, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 115110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, S. de Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heinzelmann, H.

H. Heinzelmann and D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89101 (1994).

Homma, K.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, K. Homma, T. Ataka, M. Shigeno, H. Monobe, and M. Fujihira, Ultramicroscopy 71, 73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Höppener, C.

C. Höppener, D. Molenda, H. Fuchs, and A. Naber, J. Microsc. 210, 288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iannuzzi, D.

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, T. C. van de Watering, G. Gruca, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 115110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, P. Baschieri, C. Menozzi, D. Chavan, and D. Iannuzzi, J. Microsc. 242, 10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, S. de Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalili, N.

N. Jalili and K. Laxminarayana, Mechatronics 14, 907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Joosten, B.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. Figdor, N. van Hulst, and M. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kassing, R.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Mnster, E. Oesterschulze, and R. Kassing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim and K.-B. Song, Micron 38, 409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klust, A.

P. Zahl, M. Bierkandt, S. Schroder, and A. Klust, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koopman, M.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. Figdor, N. van Hulst, and M. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laxminarayana, K.

N. Jalili and K. Laxminarayana, Mechatronics 14, 907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

P. N. Minh, T. Ono, H. Watanabe, S. S. Lee, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3020 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Margheri, G.

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, P. Baschieri, C. Menozzi, D. Chavan, and D. Iannuzzi, J. Microsc. 242, 10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).

Meixner, A. J.

Menozzi, C.

B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, P. Baschieri, C. Menozzi, D. Chavan, and D. Iannuzzi, J. Microsc. 242, 10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mihalcea, C.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Mnster, E. Oesterschulze, and R. Kassing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minh, P. N.

P. N. Minh, T. Ono, H. Watanabe, S. S. Lee, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3020 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mnster, S.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Mnster, E. Oesterschulze, and R. Kassing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Molenda, D.

C. Höppener, D. Molenda, H. Fuchs, and A. Naber, J. Microsc. 210, 288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monobe, H.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, K. Homma, T. Ataka, M. Shigeno, H. Monobe, and M. Fujihira, Ultramicroscopy 71, 73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muramatsu, H.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, K. Homma, T. Ataka, M. Shigeno, H. Monobe, and M. Fujihira, Ultramicroscopy 71, 73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naber, A.

C. Höppener, D. Molenda, H. Fuchs, and A. Naber, J. Microsc. 210, 288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oesterschulze, E.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Mnster, E. Oesterschulze, and R. Kassing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohsawa, H.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ono, T.

P. N. Minh, T. Ono, H. Watanabe, S. S. Lee, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3020 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pangaribuan, T.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).

H. Heinzelmann and D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89101 (1994).

Rector, J.

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rector, J. H.

D. Chavan, T. C. van de Watering, G. Gruca, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 115110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, S. de Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, R. G. P.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, W.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Mnster, E. Oesterschulze, and R. Kassing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schreuders, H.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, H. Schreuders, and M. C. Elwenspoek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, S.

P. Zahl, M. Bierkandt, S. Schroder, and A. Klust, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shigeno, M.

H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, K. Homma, T. Ataka, M. Shigeno, H. Monobe, and M. Fujihira, Ultramicroscopy 71, 73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sick, B.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).

Slaman, M.

D. Chavan, T. C. van de Watering, G. Gruca, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 115110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Gruca, S. De Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 094033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, S. de Man, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 123702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.-B.

J. Kim and K.-B. Song, Micron 38, 409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tarrach, G.

Tiribilli, B.

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, P. Baschieri, C. Menozzi, D. Chavan, and D. Iannuzzi, J. Microsc. 242, 10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van de Watering, T.

D. Chavan, G. Gruca, T. van de Watering, K. Heeck, J. Rector, M. Slaman, D. Andres, B. Tiribilli, G. Margheri, and D. Iannuzzi, Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

van de Watering, T. C.

D. Chavan, T. C. van de Watering, G. Gruca, J. H. Rector, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, and D. Iannuzzi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 115110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N.

M. Koopman, A. Cambi, B. de Bakker, B. Joosten, C. Figdor, N. van Hulst, and M. Garcia-Parajo, FEBS Lett. 573, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, H.

P. N. Minh, T. Ono, H. Watanabe, S. S. Lee, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3020 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Werner, S.

C. Mihalcea, W. Scholz, S. Werner, S. Mnster, E. Oesterschulze, and R. Kassing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3531 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wild, U. P.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).

Yamada, K.

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Other

Declaration of interest: D. Iannuzzi is share-holder of Optics11 B.V.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of the fabrication process of a ferrule-top probe. (a) Ferrule with ridge, (b) ribbon glued to the ferrule, (c) ribbon micromachined to create the cantilever, (d) complete ferrule-top probe, (e) enlargement of ferrule-top probe, and (f) SEM image of the end of the cantilever (front view), insert: magnified tip. See text for details.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic view of the experimental setup; a shallower angle of incidence was used for measurements in water.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Result of a 700 nm AFM indentation stroke in air. (a) Movement of the piezo in the Z direction, (b) interferometer signal that indicates when the probe is in contact with the surface of the prism, and (c) exponential increase of the optical signal when the SNOM tip approaches the evanescent field.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

8μm×8μm (a) AFM and (b) SNOM contact mode images of the NT-MDT SNG01 test grating (256×256pixels).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) AFM and (b) SNOM contact mode images of a small 4.4μm×2.2μm area. Graphs (c) and (d) show the line profile of the edge of the vanadium structure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Detail of the interference pattern created by the two interfering beams (reversed scanning direction). (a) 4μm×2μm image and (b) line scan showing the periodic wave.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) AFM and (b) SNOM contact mode images of the NT-MDT test grating measured in water.

Equations (1)

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Λ=λ02nsinθ,

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