Abstract

We have designed and built a binocular Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor using a single microlens array and camera for real-time aberration measurement of both eyes in an open-view configuration. Furthermore, the use of a long wavelength (1050 nm) laser diode makes the illumination source completely invisible, so that measurements can be unobtrusively performed while the subject stares at the visual world under realistic conditions. The setup provides a large dynamic range and simultaneous measurements of convergence, pupil size, accommodation, and aberrations. The open-view design not only offers the possibility of measuring the subject’s ocular optics under natural conditions but also allows coupling the device with other existing vision testing instruments and setups, which increases its potential to become a powerful tool for different visual optics studies.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2009 (2)

E. J. Fernandez, P. M. Prieto, and A. Artal, Opt. Lett. 34, 2628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mira-Agudelo, L. Lundstrom, and P. Artal, Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 256 (2009).

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Plainis, H. S. Ginis, and A. Pallikaris, J. Vision 5(5), 7, 466 (2005).

2004 (1)

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, J. Vision 4(4), 3, 272 (2004).

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

Ahmad, K.

Applegate, R. A.

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, J. Vision 4(4), 3, 272 (2004).

Aragon, J. L.

Artal, A.

Artal, P.

Barnett, J. K.

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, J. Vision 4(4), 3, 272 (2004).

Bille, J. F.

Bradley, A.

Burns, S. A.

J. C. He, S. A. Burns, and S. Marcos, Vis. Res. 40, 41 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cagigal, M. P.

Canales, V. F.

Castejon-Mochon, J. F.

Cheng, H.

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, J. Vision 4(4), 3, 272 (2004).

Cheng, X.

Chin, S.

Cox, I. G.

Fernandez, E. J.

Fernández, E. J.

Fujikado, T.

S. Ninomiya, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 924 (2002).

Ginis, H. S.

S. Plainis, H. S. Ginis, and A. Pallikaris, J. Vision 5(5), 7, 466 (2005).

Goelz, S.

Grimm, B.

Guirao, A.

Hampson, K.

He, J. C.

J. C. He, S. A. Burns, and S. Marcos, Vis. Res. 40, 41 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Hirohara, Y.

M. Kobayashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Yamaguchi, T. Otaki, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, Appl. Opt. 47, 4619 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ninomiya, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 924 (2002).

Hoffer, H.

Hong, X.

Kasthurirangan, S.

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, J. Vision 4(4), 3, 272 (2004).

Kobayashi, M.

Kuroda, T.

S. Ninomiya, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 924 (2002).

Liang, J.

Lopez-Gil, N.

Lundstrom, L.

A. Mira-Agudelo, L. Lundstrom, and P. Artal, Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 256 (2009).

Maeda, N.

S. Ninomiya, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 924 (2002).

Mallen, E.

Marcos, S.

J. C. He, S. A. Burns, and S. Marcos, Vis. Res. 40, 41 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marsack, J. D.

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, J. Vision 4(4), 3, 272 (2004).

Mihashi, T.

M. Kobayashi, N. Nakazawa, T. Yamaguchi, T. Otaki, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, Appl. Opt. 47, 4619 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ninomiya, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 924 (2002).

Mira-Agudelo, A.

A. Mira-Agudelo, L. Lundstrom, and P. Artal, Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 256 (2009).

Nakazawa, N.

Ninomiya, S.

S. Ninomiya, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 924 (2002).

Oshika, T.

S. Ninomiya, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 924 (2002).

Otaki, T.

Pallikaris, A.

S. Plainis, H. S. Ginis, and A. Pallikaris, J. Vision 5(5), 7, 466 (2005).

Plainis, S.

S. Plainis, H. S. Ginis, and A. Pallikaris, J. Vision 5(5), 7, 466 (2005).

Porter, J.

Prieto, P. M.

Roorda, A.

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, J. Vision 4(4), 3, 272 (2004).

Ruffieux, P.

Sabesan, R.

Scharf, T.

Singer, B.

Tano, Y.

S. Ninomiya, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 924 (2002).

Thibos, L. N.

Vargas-Martin, F.

Vilupuru, A. S.

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, J. Vision 4(4), 3, 272 (2004).

Völkel, R.

Weible, K. J.

Williams, D. R.

Yamaguchi, T.

Yoon, G.

Zheleznyak, L.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Ninomiya, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134, 924 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

J. Vision (2)

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, J. Vision 4(4), 3, 272 (2004).

S. Plainis, H. S. Ginis, and A. Pallikaris, J. Vision 5(5), 7, 466 (2005).

Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. (1)

A. Mira-Agudelo, L. Lundstrom, and P. Artal, Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 256 (2009).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Vis. Res. (1)

J. C. He, S. A. Burns, and S. Marcos, Vis. Res. 40, 41 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Apparatus. Top: schematic view to illustrate the two level design with the H-S (HS) sensor in a lower plane with respect to the line of sight. Bottom: general view of the setup with the main components and light paths labeled.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Binocular measurement with on-image pupil detection. The software package processes the binocular HS image by detecting both pupil positions and calculating the associated wavefront for a specified pupil diameter around the actual pupil center. Convergence changes can be estimated from the interpupillary distance.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temporal behavior of the near triad and spherical aberration (for a 4-mm pupil diameter) in a subject during voluntary accommodation. Note: since the subject presented a slight anisocoria (0.2mm difference in diameter), the curves for pupil diameter are represented in a dual Y-axis scheme to highlight the similarity between time courses.

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