Abstract

We demonstrate an optical amplification of organic dye within a TiO2 inverse-opal (IO) distributed feedback (DFB) reflector prepared by a slide-coating method. Highly reflective TiO2 IO film was fabricated by slide coating the binary aqueous dispersions of polystyrene microspheres and charge-stabilized TiO2 nanoparticles on a glass slide and subsequently removing the polymer-opal template. TiO2 IO film was infiltrated, in turn, with the solutions of DCM, a fluorescent dye in various solvents with different indices of refraction. Optical pumping by frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser resulted in amplified spontaneous emission in each dye solution. In accordance with the semi-empirical simulation by the FDTD method, DCM in ethanol showed the best emission/stopband matching for the TiO2 IO film used in this study. Therefore, photo excitation of a DCM/ethanol cavity showed a single-mode DFB lasing at 640 nm wavelength at moderate pump energy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 1995).
  3. S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Pan, R. Kesavamoorthy, and S. A. Asher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3860 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Takeoka and M. Watanabe, Langmuir 18, 5977 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Yoon, W. Lee, and E. L. Thomas, Nano Lett. 6, 2211 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Barughman, Synthetic Metals 116, 485 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. S. C. Gil, Y. G. Seo, S. Kim, J. Shin, and W. Lee, Thin Solid Films 518, 5731 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y. G. Seo, J. Woo, H. Lee, and W. Lee, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 3094 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Y. G. Seo, H. Lee, K. Kim, and W. Lee, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 520, 201 (2010).

S. Kim, Y. G. Seo, Y. Cho, J. Shin, S. C. Gil, and W. Lee, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 31, 1891 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Gil, Y. G. Seo, S. Kim, J. Shin, and W. Lee, Thin Solid Films 518, 5731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2006 (2)

J. Yoon, W. Lee, and E. L. Thomas, Nano Lett. 6, 2211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y. Takeoka and M. Watanabe, Langmuir 18, 5977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Adv. Mater. 12, 21 (2002).

2001 (2)

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Barughman, Synthetic Metals 116, 485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, Opt. Lett. 23, 1707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. Pan, R. Kesavamoorthy, and S. A. Asher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3860 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Asher, S. A.

G. Pan, R. Kesavamoorthy, and S. A. Asher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3860 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barughman, R. H.

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Barughman, Synthetic Metals 116, 485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R. H.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Adv. Mater. 12, 21 (2002).

Bawendi, M.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caruge, J.-M.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.

S. Kim, Y. G. Seo, Y. Cho, J. Shin, S. C. Gil, and W. Lee, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 31, 1891 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, M. C.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Adv. Mater. 12, 21 (2002).

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Barughman, Synthetic Metals 116, 485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B.

Fujiwara, H.

Genack, A. Z.

Gil, S. C.

S. Kim, Y. G. Seo, Y. Cho, J. Shin, S. C. Gil, and W. Lee, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 31, 1891 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Gil, Y. G. Seo, S. Kim, J. Shin, and W. Lee, Thin Solid Films 518, 5731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hietala, V.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Imada, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, W. C.

S. H. Kim, S. Kim, W. C. Jeong, and S. M. Yang, Chem. Mater. 21, 4993 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 1995).

Juodkazis, S.

Kesavamoorthy, R.

G. Pan, R. Kesavamoorthy, and S. A. Asher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3860 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

Y. G. Seo, H. Lee, K. Kim, and W. Lee, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 520, 201 (2010).

Kim, S.

S. Kim, Y. G. Seo, Y. Cho, J. Shin, S. C. Gil, and W. Lee, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 31, 1891 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Gil, Y. G. Seo, S. Kim, J. Shin, and W. Lee, Thin Solid Films 518, 5731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kim, S. Kim, W. C. Jeong, and S. M. Yang, Chem. Mater. 21, 4993 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, S. Kim, W. C. Jeong, and S. M. Yang, Chem. Mater. 21, 4993 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kooi, S.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V. I.

Lee, H.

Y. G. Seo, J. Woo, H. Lee, and W. Lee, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 3094 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Seo, H. Lee, K. Kim, and W. Lee, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 520, 201 (2010).

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

Y. G. Seo, J. Woo, H. Lee, and W. Lee, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 3094 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Gil, Y. G. Seo, S. Kim, J. Shin, and W. Lee, Thin Solid Films 518, 5731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Seo, H. Lee, K. Kim, and W. Lee, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 520, 201 (2010).

S. Kim, Y. G. Seo, Y. Cho, J. Shin, S. C. Gil, and W. Lee, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 31, 1891 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, W. Lee, and E. L. Thomas, Nano Lett. 6, 2211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 1995).

Misawa, H.

Mizeikis, V.

Mochizuki, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishijima, Y.

Noda, S.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, G.

G. Pan, R. Kesavamoorthy, and S. A. Asher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3860 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polson, R. C.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Adv. Mater. 12, 21 (2002).

Prasad, P. N.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raikh, M. E.

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Barughman, Synthetic Metals 116, 485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y. G.

Y. G. Seo, J. Woo, H. Lee, and W. Lee, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 3094 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Gil, Y. G. Seo, S. Kim, J. Shin, and W. Lee, Thin Solid Films 518, 5731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Seo, H. Lee, K. Kim, and W. Lee, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 520, 201 (2010).

S. Kim, Y. G. Seo, Y. Cho, J. Shin, S. C. Gil, and W. Lee, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 31, 1891 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

S. Kim, Y. G. Seo, Y. Cho, J. Shin, S. C. Gil, and W. Lee, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 31, 1891 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Gil, Y. G. Seo, S. Kim, J. Shin, and W. Lee, Thin Solid Films 518, 5731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shkunov, M. N.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Adv. Mater. 12, 21 (2002).

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Barughman, Synthetic Metals 116, 485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takeoka, Y.

Y. Takeoka and M. Watanabe, Langmuir 18, 5977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, and E. L. Thomas, Nano Lett. 6, 2211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tomoda, K.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, K.

Vardeny, Z. V.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Adv. Mater. 12, 21 (2002).

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Barughman, Synthetic Metals 116, 485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vithana, H. K. M.

Watanabe, M.

Y. Takeoka and M. Watanabe, Langmuir 18, 5977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 1995).

Woo, J.

Y. G. Seo, J. Woo, H. Lee, and W. Lee, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 3094 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. M.

S. H. Kim, S. Kim, W. C. Jeong, and S. M. Yang, Chem. Mater. 21, 4993 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, W. Lee, and E. L. Thomas, Nano Lett. 6, 2211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A. A.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Adv. Mater. 12, 21 (2002).

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Barughman, Synthetic Metals 116, 485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y. G. Seo, J. Woo, H. Lee, and W. Lee, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 3094 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Adv. Mater. 12, 21 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J.-M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Kim, Y. G. Seo, Y. Cho, J. Shin, S. C. Gil, and W. Lee, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 31, 1891 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. H. Kim, S. Kim, W. C. Jeong, and S. M. Yang, Chem. Mater. 21, 4993 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

Y. Takeoka and M. Watanabe, Langmuir 18, 5977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

Y. G. Seo, H. Lee, K. Kim, and W. Lee, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 520, 201 (2010).

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Yoon, W. Lee, and E. L. Thomas, Nano Lett. 6, 2211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. Pan, R. Kesavamoorthy, and S. A. Asher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3860 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Science 282, 274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Synthetic Metals (1)

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Barughman, Synthetic Metals 116, 485 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. C. Gil, Y. G. Seo, S. Kim, J. Shin, and W. Lee, Thin Solid Films 518, 5731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fabrication procedures for TiO2 IO reflector by (1) slide coating an aqueous mixture of PS and TiO2 particles, (2) drying the binary opal, and (3) removing the PS opal template.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic representation of a laser cavity and PL experiment. (b) SEM image of TiO2 IO reflector showing a top surface and a cross-section of highly ordered IO structure. Inset shows a reflective color of TiO2 IO film.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Magnified SEM image of a TiO2 IO film on which period size p and diameter D of pore are drawn. From the SEM image, p is measured to be 283 nm and D is a variable for the calculation. In the figure, a D/p of 1.1 is shown. (b) FDTD simulation results with three D/p values. The measured reflectance spectrum is overlaid for comparison with the FDTD simulation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optically pumped PL spectra of DCM within TiO2 IO DFB reflector using (a) Toluene, (b) DMF, and (c) EtOH as solvent for DCM where the wavelength shifts in ASE in each solvent are evident. Δn in each spectrum stands for the index contrast between TiO2 IO and the respective solvent at 650 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Variation of PL intensities as a function of pump energy showing nonlinear increases of PL intensity at λpeak. Inset figure shows a photograph of a laser cavity excited by pump light (green-dashed line) and a projected red lasing spot on a white screen (red solid line).

Equations (1)

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λstop=(8/3)1/2(p/m)·(fpore·npore2+fTiO2·nTiO22)1/2=1.633·p·neff,

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