Abstract

We report a propagation spectrum detection system in which one end of a plasmonic silver nanowire is locally illuminated from a normal halogen lamp and the scattered light is recorded spectroscopically at the other end. The system is applied to investigate surface plasmon polariton–Fabry–Perot (SPP–FP) modes of silver nanowires with different lengths at air–glass and oil–glass interfaces. The generalized FP model is used to analyze the spectrum, which fits well with the experimental results. The influence of nanowire length and environment on the properties of the FP resonances is discussed. The propagation spectrum detection system will find applications for integrated optical circuits and plasmonic sensing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

Y. Bian, Z. Zheng, P. Yang, J. Xiao, G. Wang, L. Liu, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and T. Zhou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8100108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

Y. Bian and Q. Gong, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 870 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Jiang, C. Liu, P. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Lu, and H. Ming, Opt. Express 21, 4752 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, Y. Xiao, C. Meng, X. Zhang, S. Yu, Y. Wang, C. Yang, X. Guo, C.-Z. Ning, and L. Tong, Nano Lett. 13, 5654 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Wei, S. Zhang, X. Tian, and H. Xu, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110, 4494 (2013).

Q. Hu, D.-H. Xu, Y. Zhou, R.-W. Peng, R.-H. Fan, N. X. Fang, Q.-J. Wang, X.-R. Huang, and M. Wang, Sci. Rep. 3, 3095 (2013).

Q. Li and M. Qiu, Opt. Express 21, 8587 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

A. Hohenau, P. Kusar, C. Gruber, and J. R. Krenn, Opt. Lett. 37, 746 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, Nano Lett. 12, 661 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. de Leon, B. Shields, C. Yu, D. Englund, A. Akimov, M. Lukin, and H. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. J. Russell, T.-L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 6, 459 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang and H. Xu, ACS Nano 6, 8128 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Song, G. Chen, Y. Liu, E. Wu, B. Wu, and H. Zeng, Opt. Express 20, 22290 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. D. Miljković, T. Shegai, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, Opt. Express 20, 10816 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, Nano Lett. 11, 706 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 11, 471 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Wei, Z. Wang, X. Tian, M. Käll, and H. Xu, Nat. Commun. 2, 387 (2011).
[Crossref]

L.-L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, L. Lv, Y.-J. Cai, F.-W. Sun, G.-C. Guo, and G.-P. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061103 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Chen, X. Qiao, and J. Chen, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 22, 1335 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 10, 1950 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 9, 4383 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. J. Parab, H. M. Chen, T.-C. Lai, J. H. Huang, P. H. Chen, R.-S. Liu, M. Hsiao, C.-H. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, and Y.-K. Hwu, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7574 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Li and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 1 (2006).

2005 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. Aussenegg, and J. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Akimov, A.

N. de Leon, B. Shields, C. Yu, D. Englund, A. Akimov, M. Lukin, and H. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aussenegg, F.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. Aussenegg, and J. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bao, K.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, Nano Lett. 11, 706 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bian, Y.

Y. Bian, Z. Zheng, P. Yang, J. Xiao, G. Wang, L. Liu, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and T. Zhou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8100108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Bian and Q. Gong, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 870 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.-J.

L.-L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, L. Lv, Y.-J. Cai, F.-W. Sun, G.-C. Guo, and G.-P. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. C.

Chen, C.-H.

H. J. Parab, H. M. Chen, T.-C. Lai, J. H. Huang, P. H. Chen, R.-S. Liu, M. Hsiao, C.-H. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, and Y.-K. Hwu, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, X. Qiao, and J. Chen, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 22, 1335 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

Chen, H. M.

H. J. Parab, H. M. Chen, T.-C. Lai, J. H. Huang, P. H. Chen, R.-S. Liu, M. Hsiao, C.-H. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, and Y.-K. Hwu, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

D. Chen, X. Qiao, and J. Chen, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 22, 1335 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. H.

H. J. Parab, H. M. Chen, T.-C. Lai, J. H. Huang, P. H. Chen, R.-S. Liu, M. Hsiao, C.-H. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, and Y.-K. Hwu, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiu, K. P.

Christy, R.

P. B. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Cong, F.

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 11, 471 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cui, S.

K. J. Russell, T.-L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 6, 459 (2012).
[Crossref]

de Leon, N.

N. de Leon, B. Shields, C. Yu, D. Englund, A. Akimov, M. Lukin, and H. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. Aussenegg, and J. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Engheta, N.

J. Li and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 1 (2006).

Englund, D.

N. de Leon, B. Shields, C. Yu, D. Englund, A. Akimov, M. Lukin, and H. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, R.-H.

Q. Hu, D.-H. Xu, Y. Zhou, R.-W. Peng, R.-H. Fan, N. X. Fang, Q.-J. Wang, X.-R. Huang, and M. Wang, Sci. Rep. 3, 3095 (2013).

Fang, N. X.

Q. Hu, D.-H. Xu, Y. Zhou, R.-W. Peng, R.-H. Fan, N. X. Fang, Q.-J. Wang, X.-R. Huang, and M. Wang, Sci. Rep. 3, 3095 (2013).

Fang, Y.

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 10, 1950 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 9, 4383 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

Y. Bian and Q. Gong, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 870 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gruber, C.

A. Hohenau, P. Kusar, C. Gruber, and J. R. Krenn, Opt. Lett. 37, 746 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, Nano Lett. 12, 661 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.-C.

L.-L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, L. Lv, Y.-J. Cai, F.-W. Sun, G.-C. Guo, and G.-P. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.-P.

L.-L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, L. Lv, Y.-J. Cai, F.-W. Sun, G.-C. Guo, and G.-P. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

X. Wu, Y. Xiao, C. Meng, X. Zhang, S. Yu, Y. Wang, C. Yang, X. Guo, C.-Z. Ning, and L. Tong, Nano Lett. 13, 5654 (2013).
[Crossref]

Halas, N. J.

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 11, 471 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 10, 1950 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hao, F.

Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 9, 4383 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hofer, F.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. Aussenegg, and J. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hohenau, A.

A. Hohenau, P. Kusar, C. Gruber, and J. R. Krenn, Opt. Lett. 37, 746 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, Nano Lett. 12, 661 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. Aussenegg, and J. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, M.

H. J. Parab, H. M. Chen, T.-C. Lai, J. H. Huang, P. H. Chen, R.-S. Liu, M. Hsiao, C.-H. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, and Y.-K. Hwu, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

K. J. Russell, T.-L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 6, 459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

Q. Hu, D.-H. Xu, Y. Zhou, R.-W. Peng, R.-H. Fan, N. X. Fang, Q.-J. Wang, X.-R. Huang, and M. Wang, Sci. Rep. 3, 3095 (2013).

Huang, H. J.

Huang, J. H.

H. J. Parab, H. M. Chen, T.-C. Lai, J. H. Huang, P. H. Chen, R.-S. Liu, M. Hsiao, C.-H. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, and Y.-K. Hwu, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.-R.

Q. Hu, D.-H. Xu, Y. Zhou, R.-W. Peng, R.-H. Fan, N. X. Fang, Q.-J. Wang, X.-R. Huang, and M. Wang, Sci. Rep. 3, 3095 (2013).

Huang, Y.

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 10, 1950 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 9, 4383 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hwu, Y.-K.

H. J. Parab, H. M. Chen, T.-C. Lai, J. H. Huang, P. H. Chen, R.-S. Liu, M. Hsiao, C.-H. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, and Y.-K. Hwu, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Johansson, P.

V. D. Miljković, T. Shegai, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, Opt. Express 20, 10816 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, Nano Lett. 11, 706 (2011).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Käll, M.

V. D. Miljković, T. Shegai, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, Opt. Express 20, 10816 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, Nano Lett. 11, 706 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Wei, Z. Wang, X. Tian, M. Käll, and H. Xu, Nat. Commun. 2, 387 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kreibig, U.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. Aussenegg, and J. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. Aussenegg, and J. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, Nano Lett. 12, 661 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Hohenau, P. Kusar, C. Gruber, and J. R. Krenn, Opt. Lett. 37, 746 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kusar, P.

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, Nano Lett. 12, 661 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Hohenau, P. Kusar, C. Gruber, and J. R. Krenn, Opt. Lett. 37, 746 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lai, T.-C.

H. J. Parab, H. M. Chen, T.-C. Lai, J. H. Huang, P. H. Chen, R.-S. Liu, M. Hsiao, C.-H. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, and Y.-K. Hwu, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Li and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 1 (2006).

Li, Q.

Li, Z.

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 11, 471 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 10, 1950 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 9, 4383 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.-P.

L.-L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, L. Lv, Y.-J. Cai, F.-W. Sun, G.-C. Guo, and G.-P. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Liu, J.

Y. Bian, Z. Zheng, P. Yang, J. Xiao, G. Wang, L. Liu, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and T. Zhou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8100108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Y. Bian, Z. Zheng, P. Yang, J. Xiao, G. Wang, L. Liu, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and T. Zhou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8100108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 11, 471 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, R. S.

Liu, R.-S.

H. J. Parab, H. M. Chen, T.-C. Lai, J. H. Huang, P. H. Chen, R.-S. Liu, M. Hsiao, C.-H. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, and Y.-K. Hwu, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.-L.

K. J. Russell, T.-L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 6, 459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lu, Y.

Lukin, M.

N. de Leon, B. Shields, C. Yu, D. Englund, A. Akimov, M. Lukin, and H. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lv, L.

L.-L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, L. Lv, Y.-J. Cai, F.-W. Sun, G.-C. Guo, and G.-P. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meng, C.

X. Wu, Y. Xiao, C. Meng, X. Zhang, S. Yu, Y. Wang, C. Yang, X. Guo, C.-Z. Ning, and L. Tong, Nano Lett. 13, 5654 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miljkovic, V. D.

V. D. Miljković, T. Shegai, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, Opt. Express 20, 10816 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, Nano Lett. 11, 706 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ming, H.

Ming Chen, H.

Ning, C.-Z.

X. Wu, Y. Xiao, C. Meng, X. Zhang, S. Yu, Y. Wang, C. Yang, X. Guo, C.-Z. Ning, and L. Tong, Nano Lett. 13, 5654 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nordlander, P.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, Nano Lett. 11, 706 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 11, 471 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 10, 1950 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, Nano Lett. 9, 4383 (2009).
[Crossref]

Parab, H. J.

H. J. Parab, H. M. Chen, T.-C. Lai, J. H. Huang, P. H. Chen, R.-S. Liu, M. Hsiao, C.-H. Chen, D.-P. Tsai, and Y.-K. Hwu, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

N. de Leon, B. Shields, C. Yu, D. Englund, A. Akimov, M. Lukin, and H. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peng, R.-W.

Q. Hu, D.-H. Xu, Y. Zhou, R.-W. Peng, R.-H. Fan, N. X. Fang, Q.-J. Wang, X.-R. Huang, and M. Wang, Sci. Rep. 3, 3095 (2013).

Qiao, X.

D. Chen, X. Qiao, and J. Chen, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 22, 1335 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiu, M.

Ren, X.-F.

L.-L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, X.-F. Ren, A.-P. Liu, L. Lv, Y.-J. Cai, F.-W. Sun, G.-C. Guo, and G.-P. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 061103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rogers, M.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. Aussenegg, and J. Krenn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Russell, K. J.

K. J. Russell, T.-L. Liu, S. Cui, and E. L. Hu, Nat. Photonics 6, 459 (2012).
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Shegai, T.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the local-excitation and local-spectral measurement system. The aperture is used to minimize dispersion effects and decrease the size of the focus spot. The flip mirror is used to switch between imaging and spectral detection. (b) Charge-coupled device (CCD) image of the nanowire. (c) CCD image of excitation of the right end by the 8-μm-diameter white spot. The yellow arrow indicates light scattered from the output end. The scale bar is 5 μm for (b) and (c).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scattered light spectra acquired from the output ends of silver nanowires as indicated for lengths (a) L=11μm and (b) L=6μm. Scattered spectra of the silver nanowires on the air–glass interface are the black curves, and after the drop of index-matching oil, the spectra change to the red line.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Numerical solutions of (a) real part Ksp(real) and (b) imaginary part Ksp(imag) of the SPP mode propagation constant Ksp. Insets of (b) energy density distributions on the cross section of the silver nanowires on the air–glass interface and the index-matching oil–glass interface, respectively. The wavelength used here is λ=650nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated scattering spectra from the output ends of silver nanowires with lengths of (a) L=11μm and (b) L=6μm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔIImin=4|r|2eL/l(1|r|2eL/l)2.
Ut+Ar˜=U1,U+=At˜+Ur,U+eiKspL·t=U2,UeiKspL=U+eiKspL·r.
Iout=U2U2*=|A|t˜||t|eiKspL|2|1|r|2e2iKspL|2=ISP||t|eiKspL|2|1|r|2e2iKspL|2,

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