Abstract

In this Letter, we report on the improved configuration of a widely tunable optical RF generation system, particularly for the generation of low-frequency RF, as well as the reduction of phase noise in that same system. Using an amplitude modulator, a simplified system design was demonstrated with fewer components and improved phase noise performance, especially at RF frequencies below 36GHz. Excess phase noise due to acoustic vibrations of the optical fibers was also successfully eliminated by mechanical isolation. A minimum phase noise of 124dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset was demonstrated at 4 GHz.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

2013 (2)

G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowksi, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, Nat. Photonics 7, 118 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Criado, C. de Dios, E. Prior, G. Dohler, S. Preu, S. Malzer, H. Lu, A. Gossard, and P. Acedo, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

C. Laperle, M. Svilans, M. Porer, and M. Tetu, Opt. Express 17, 20727 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, C. Sun, B. Xiong, and Y. Luo, Opt. Express 17, 20727 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, W.-J. Jiang, S.-P. Dai, P.-C. Peng, Y.-L. Ho, and S. Chi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 57, 2084 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

B. R. Koch, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, and J. E. Bowers, Opt. Express 15, 11225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, K. E. Tobin, V. C. Elarde, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

S. D. Roh, T. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Kikuchi, C.-E. Zah, and T.-P. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1821 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, and D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 19, 491 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, and J. F. Weller, Electron. Lett. 18, 1019 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

H. L. Stover and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 91 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Acedo, P.

A. Criado, C. de Dios, E. Prior, G. Dohler, S. Preu, S. Malzer, H. Lu, A. Gossard, and P. Acedo, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Criado, C. de Dios, P. Acedo, G. Carpintero, and K. Yvind, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3133 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, A.

Blache, F.

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Bloch, E.

Bloom, D. M.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, and D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 19, 491 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Cai-Yun, L.

C. Cheng, Z. Ling-Juan, Q. Ji-Fiang, L. Yang, W. Wei, and L. Cai-Yun, Chin. Phys. B 21, 094208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cannard, P.

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Cannard, P. J.

Carpintero, G.

Chen, J.

C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, W.-J. Jiang, S.-P. Dai, P.-C. Peng, Y.-L. Ho, and S. Chi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 57, 2084 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.

C. Cheng, Z. Ling-Juan, Q. Ji-Fiang, L. Yang, W. Wei, and L. Cai-Yun, Chin. Phys. B 21, 094208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chi, S.

C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, W.-J. Jiang, S.-P. Dai, P.-C. Peng, Y.-L. Ho, and S. Chi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 57, 2084 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Coldren, L. A.

Coleman, J.

S. D. Roh, T. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, J. J.

R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, K. E. Tobin, V. C. Elarde, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Criado, A.

A. Criado, C. de Dios, E. Prior, G. Dohler, S. Preu, S. Malzer, H. Lu, A. Gossard, and P. Acedo, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Criado, A. R.

Cronin, R.

Dai, S.-P.

C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, W.-J. Jiang, S.-P. Dai, P.-C. Peng, Y.-L. Ho, and S. Chi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 57, 2084 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Dios, C.

A. Criado, C. de Dios, E. Prior, G. Dohler, S. Preu, S. Malzer, H. Lu, A. Gossard, and P. Acedo, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Criado, C. de Dios, P. Acedo, G. Carpintero, and K. Yvind, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3133 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dohler, G.

A. Criado, C. de Dios, E. Prior, G. Dohler, S. Preu, S. Malzer, H. Lu, A. Gossard, and P. Acedo, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ejzak, G. A.

Elarde, V. C.

R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, K. E. Tobin, V. C. Elarde, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Enard, A.

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Fang, A. W.

Fice, M. J.

Fukushima, S.

Goix, M.

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, and D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 19, 491 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, and J. F. Weller, Electron. Lett. 18, 1019 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A.

A. Criado, C. de Dios, E. Prior, G. Dohler, S. Preu, S. Malzer, H. Lu, A. Gossard, and P. Acedo, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, Z.

Grund, D. W.

Ho, Y.-L.

C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, W.-J. Jiang, S.-P. Dai, P.-C. Peng, Y.-L. Ho, and S. Chi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 57, 2084 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, C. Sun, B. Xiong, and Y. Luo, Opt. Express 17, 20727 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sun, J. Huang, B. Xiong, and Y. Luo, in OFC/NFOEC (2010), pp. 1–3.

Huber, A. E.

S. D. Roh, T. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, J. S.

S. D. Roh, T. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.-J.

C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, W.-J. Jiang, S.-P. Dai, P.-C. Peng, Y.-L. Ho, and S. Chi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 57, 2084 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ji-Fiang, Q.

C. Cheng, Z. Ling-Juan, Q. Ji-Fiang, L. Yang, W. Wei, and L. Cai-Yun, Chin. Phys. B 21, 094208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, L. A.

Johnston, L.

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi, C.-E. Zah, and T.-P. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1821 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B. R.

Laperle, C.

Lealman, I.

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Lealman, I. F.

Lee, T.-P.

K. Kikuchi, C.-E. Zah, and T.-P. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1821 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-T.

C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, W.-J. Jiang, S.-P. Dai, P.-C. Peng, Y.-L. Ho, and S. Chi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 57, 2084 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ling-Juan, Z.

C. Cheng, Z. Ling-Juan, Q. Ji-Fiang, L. Yang, W. Wei, and L. Cai-Yun, Chin. Phys. B 21, 094208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

A. Criado, C. de Dios, E. Prior, G. Dohler, S. Preu, S. Malzer, H. Lu, A. Gossard, and P. Acedo, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

Luo, Y.

J. Huang, C. Sun, B. Xiong, and Y. Luo, Opt. Express 17, 20727 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sun, J. Huang, B. Xiong, and Y. Luo, in OFC/NFOEC (2010), pp. 1–3.

Lynch, C.

Mallecot, F.

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Malzer, S.

A. Criado, C. de Dios, E. Prior, G. Dohler, S. Preu, S. Malzer, H. Lu, A. Gossard, and P. Acedo, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D. G.

Moodie, M.

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Murakowksi, J. A.

G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowksi, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, Nat. Photonics 7, 118 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

Muramoto, Y.

Naglic, L.

Park, H.

Pavlovic, L.

Peng, P.-C.

C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, W.-J. Jiang, S.-P. Dai, P.-C. Peng, Y.-L. Ho, and S. Chi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 57, 2084 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ponnampalam, L.

L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Porer, M.

Pozzi, F.

Prather, D. W.

S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Proc. SPIE 8980, 898022 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, G. J. Schneider, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1363 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowksi, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, Nat. Photonics 7, 118 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Preu, S.

A. Criado, C. de Dios, E. Prior, G. Dohler, S. Preu, S. Malzer, H. Lu, A. Gossard, and P. Acedo, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Price, R. K.

R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, K. E. Tobin, V. C. Elarde, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prior, E.

A. Criado, C. de Dios, E. Prior, G. Dohler, S. Preu, S. Malzer, H. Lu, A. Gossard, and P. Acedo, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, C.

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Renaud, C. C.

Ristic, S.

Rivers, L.

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Robertson, M.

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Robertson, M. J.

Rodwell, M. J.

Rogers, D. C.

Roh, S. D.

S. D. Roh, T. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, D.

D. Scherer, RF and Microwave Measurement Symposium and Exhibition (Hewlett-Packard, 1981), p. 15.

Schneider, G.

S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Proc. SPIE 8980, 898022 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G. J.

D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, G. J. Schneider, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 1363 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowksi, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, Nat. Photonics 7, 118 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schuetz, C. A.

G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowksi, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, Nat. Photonics 7, 118 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A.

Seeds, A. J.

L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. J. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Shi, S.

S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, Proc. SPIE 8980, 898022 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Schneider, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowksi, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, Nat. Photonics 7, 118 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shih, P.-T.

C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, W.-J. Jiang, S.-P. Dai, P.-C. Peng, Y.-L. Ho, and S. Chi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 57, 2084 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silva, C.

Sivananthan, A.

Steier, W. H.

H. L. Stover and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 91 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Stover, H. L.

H. L. Stover and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 91 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

J. Huang, C. Sun, B. Xiong, and Y. Luo, Opt. Express 17, 20727 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sun, J. Huang, B. Xiong, and Y. Luo, in OFC/NFOEC (2010), pp. 1–3.

Svilans, M.

Swint, R. B.

S. D. Roh, T. Yeoh, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, C. Y. Woo, J. S. Hughes, and J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, and D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 19, 491 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, and J. F. Weller, Electron. Lett. 18, 1019 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tetu, M.

Tobin, K. E.

R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, K. E. Tobin, V. C. Elarde, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Dijk, F.

L. Ponnampalam, C. Renaud, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, P. Cannard, M. Robertson, M. Moodie, F. van Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and A. J. Seeds, “Injection-locked integrated twin DBR lasers for mm-wave generation,” in European Workshop on Photonic Solutions for Wireless, Access, and In House Networks, Duisburg, Germany, 2009.

Verma, V. B.

R. K. Price, V. B. Verma, K. E. Tobin, V. C. Elarde, and J. J. Coleman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vidmar, M.

Wei, W.

C. Cheng, Z. Ling-Juan, Q. Ji-Fiang, L. Yang, W. Wei, and L. Cai-Yun, Chin. Phys. B 21, 094208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weller, J. F.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, and D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 19, 491 (1983).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout and injection spectra of a radio frequency signal generation system based on injection-locked lasers. Modulation and carrier suppression were performed by a phase modulator and filters in Ref. [19] and by an amplitude modulator in this work.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Single-arm drive Z-cut lithium niobate Mach–Zender modulator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dual-parallel balanced-drive X-cut lithium niobate Mach–Zender modulator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the phase noise of the generated signal and reference at 36 GHz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the difference between the phase noise of the generated signal and scaled reference at 36 GHz in this work and from the work of Ref. [19].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the phase noise of the generated signal and reference at 4 GHz.

Equations (1)

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PNExcess=PNSignalPNScaled Reference,

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