Abstract

In recent years, spontaneous emission modulation of emitters in photonic crystals (PCs) has been widely reported. However, the modulation of PCs on upconversion (UC) white light emission has been rarely studied. In this Letter, triply doped PMMA/NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+, Tm3+ composite photonic crystals were successfully fabricated and white light emission was obtained. It is interesting to observe that the chromaticity could be conveniently tuned by changing the photonic stop band (PSB), the incident angle, or the power of the excitation light.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, H. W. Song, W. Xu, B. Dong, S. Xu, B. T. Chen, W. Yu, and S. Zhang, Nanoscale 5, 3412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Zhou, Y. S. Zhu, W. Xu, L. Xu, and H. W. Song, Opt. Express 21, 25744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

D. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 6306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, H. W. Song, X. Bai, Q. Liu, and Y. S. Zhu, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 18023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

X. F. Yu, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. D. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Yang, Y. Y. Zhang, J. J. Li, Y. Li, J. X. Zhong, and P. K. Chu, Nanoscale 2, 2805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Bovero, K. Yano, T. Nakamura, Y. Yamada, and F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Aarts, B. M. van der Ende, and A. J. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. 106, 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Nature 457, 174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. Glaspell, J. Anderson, J. R. Wilkins, and M. S. El-Shall, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Sunner, C. Schneider, M. Straub, A. Huggenberger, and D. Wiener, Opt. Lett. 33, 1759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Z. X. Qiang, W. D. Zhou, and R. A. Soref, Opt. Express 15, 1823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, Nat. Photonics 1, 449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. K. Zheng, T. Guo, Y. Yu, and P. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Bechger, P. Lodahl, and W. L. Vos, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9980 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlance, Science 273, 1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aarts, L.

L. Aarts, B. M. van der Ende, and A. J. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. 106, 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J.

G. Glaspell, J. Anderson, J. R. Wilkins, and M. S. El-Shall, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, Nat. Photonics 1, 449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

W. Wang, H. W. Song, X. Bai, Q. Liu, and Y. S. Zhu, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 18023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Nature 457, 174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bechger, L.

L. Bechger, P. Lodahl, and W. L. Vos, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9980 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Nature 457, 174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bovero, E.

E. Bovero, K. Yano, T. Nakamura, Y. Yamada, and F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chassagneux, Y.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Nature 457, 174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. T.

J. Wang, H. W. Song, W. Xu, B. Dong, S. Xu, B. T. Chen, W. Yu, and S. Zhang, Nanoscale 5, 3412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. K. Zheng, T. Guo, Y. Yu, and P. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. D.

X. F. Yu, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. D. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. Y.

D. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 6306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. K.

L. W. Yang, Y. Y. Zhang, J. J. Li, Y. Li, J. X. Zhong, and P. K. Chu, Nanoscale 2, 2805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Nature 457, 174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q. L.

Davies, A. G.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Nature 457, 174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

J. Wang, H. W. Song, W. Xu, B. Dong, S. Xu, B. T. Chen, W. Yu, and S. Zhang, Nanoscale 5, 3412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Zhu, W. Xu, H. Z. Zhang, S. Xu, Y. F. Wang, Q. L. Dai, B. Dong, L. Xu, and H. W. Song, Opt. Express 20, 29673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlance, Science 273, 1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

El-Shall, M. S.

G. Glaspell, J. Anderson, J. R. Wilkins, and M. S. El-Shall, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, Nat. Photonics 1, 449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glaspell, G.

G. Glaspell, J. Anderson, J. R. Wilkins, and M. S. El-Shall, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

D. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. K. Zheng, T. Guo, Y. Yu, and P. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. Y.

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlance, Science 273, 1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

D. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. K. Zheng, T. Guo, Y. Yu, and P. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. Y.

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huggenberger, A.

Ju, Q.

D. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 6306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Nature 457, 174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. J.

L. W. Yang, Y. Y. Zhang, J. J. Li, Y. Li, J. X. Zhong, and P. K. Chu, Nanoscale 2, 2805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

X. F. Yu, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. D. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. F.

D. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 6306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

L. W. Yang, Y. Y. Zhang, J. J. Li, Y. Li, J. X. Zhong, and P. K. Chu, Nanoscale 2, 2805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Yu, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. D. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Nature 457, 174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. Q.

D. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 6306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

W. Wang, H. W. Song, X. Bai, Q. Liu, and Y. S. Zhu, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 18023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

F. Wang and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. G.

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

D. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 6306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lodahl, P.

L. Bechger, P. Lodahl, and W. L. Vos, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9980 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlance, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlance, Science 273, 1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maineult, W.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Nature 457, 174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meijerink, A. J.

L. Aarts, B. M. van der Ende, and A. J. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. 106, 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

E. Bovero, K. Yano, T. Nakamura, Y. Yamada, and F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, Nat. Photonics 1, 449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiang, Z. X.

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlance, Science 273, 1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Nature 457, 174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, C.

Song, H. W.

P. W. Zhou, Y. S. Zhu, W. Xu, L. Xu, and H. W. Song, Opt. Express 21, 25744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, H. W. Song, W. Xu, B. Dong, S. Xu, B. T. Chen, W. Yu, and S. Zhang, Nanoscale 5, 3412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Zhu, W. Xu, H. Z. Zhang, S. Xu, Y. F. Wang, Q. L. Dai, B. Dong, L. Xu, and H. W. Song, Opt. Express 20, 29673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, H. W. Song, X. Bai, Q. Liu, and Y. S. Zhu, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 18023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

Straub, M.

Sunner, T.

Tu, D.

D. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 6306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van der Ende, B. M.

L. Aarts, B. M. van der Ende, and A. J. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. 106, 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

E. Bovero, K. Yano, T. Nakamura, Y. Yamada, and F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vos, W. L.

L. Bechger, P. Lodahl, and W. L. Vos, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9980 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

F. Wang and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, H. W. Song, W. Xu, B. Dong, S. Xu, B. T. Chen, W. Yu, and S. Zhang, Nanoscale 5, 3412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. Q.

X. F. Yu, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. D. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, H. W. Song, X. Bai, Q. Liu, and Y. S. Zhu, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 18023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

D. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. K. Zheng, T. Guo, Y. Yu, and P. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. F.

Wiener, D.

Wilkins, J. R.

G. Glaspell, J. Anderson, J. R. Wilkins, and M. S. El-Shall, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, M. Y.

X. F. Yu, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. D. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Xu, S.

J. Wang, H. W. Song, W. Xu, B. Dong, S. Xu, B. T. Chen, W. Yu, and S. Zhang, Nanoscale 5, 3412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Zhu, W. Xu, H. Z. Zhang, S. Xu, Y. F. Wang, Q. L. Dai, B. Dong, L. Xu, and H. W. Song, Opt. Express 20, 29673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

Yamada, Y.

E. Bovero, K. Yano, T. Nakamura, Y. Yamada, and F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L. W.

L. W. Yang, Y. Y. Zhang, J. J. Li, Y. Li, J. X. Zhong, and P. K. Chu, Nanoscale 2, 2805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yano, K.

E. Bovero, K. Yano, T. Nakamura, Y. Yamada, and F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

J. Wang, H. W. Song, W. Xu, B. Dong, S. Xu, B. T. Chen, W. Yu, and S. Zhang, Nanoscale 5, 3412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. F.

X. F. Yu, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. D. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

D. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. K. Zheng, T. Guo, Y. Yu, and P. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. Z.

Zhang, S.

J. Wang, H. W. Song, W. Xu, B. Dong, S. Xu, B. T. Chen, W. Yu, and S. Zhang, Nanoscale 5, 3412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Y.

L. W. Yang, Y. Y. Zhang, J. J. Li, Y. Li, J. X. Zhong, and P. K. Chu, Nanoscale 2, 2805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. K.

D. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. K. Zheng, T. Guo, Y. Yu, and P. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, J. X.

L. W. Yang, Y. Y. Zhang, J. J. Li, Y. Li, J. X. Zhong, and P. K. Chu, Nanoscale 2, 2805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P. W.

Zhou, W. D.

Zhu, H. M.

D. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 6306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y. S.

Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.

D. Tu, L. Q. Liu, Q. Ju, Y. S. Liu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, and X. Y. Chen, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 6306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys.

L. Aarts, B. M. van der Ende, and A. J. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. 106, 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. K. Zheng, T. Guo, Y. Yu, and P. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Chem.

E. Bovero, K. Yano, T. Nakamura, Y. Yamada, and F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2550 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev.

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 173 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

F. Wang and X. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

L. Bechger, P. Lodahl, and W. L. Vos, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9980 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

G. Glaspell, J. Anderson, J. R. Wilkins, and M. S. El-Shall, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11527 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Res.

X. F. Yu, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. D. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale

L. W. Yang, Y. Y. Zhang, J. J. Li, Y. Li, J. X. Zhong, and P. K. Chu, Nanoscale 2, 2805 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, H. W. Song, W. Xu, B. Dong, S. Xu, B. T. Chen, W. Yu, and S. Zhang, Nanoscale 5, 3412 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, Nat. Photonics 1, 449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Nature 457, 174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

W. Wang, H. W. Song, X. Bai, Q. Liu, and Y. S. Zhu, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 18023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlance, Science 273, 1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a)–(c) Schematic illustration of the PMMA/NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+, Tm3+ photonic crystal and the reference sample. (d) Schematic illustration of reflection measurement methods. (e) Schematic illustration of angle changing measurement methods.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) TEM image of oil-soluble NaYF4 NCs in cyclohexane solution. (b), (c) TEM images of water-soluble NaYF4 NCs in water solution. (d), (e) SEM images of the PMMA/NaYF4 photonic crystal. (f) XRD pattern of NaYF4. (g) Transmittance spectra with different PSBs at the normal (θ=0°).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Emission spectra of PC samples with different PSBs. (b) The energy-level diagram of Yb3+, Er3+, Tm3+. (c) The CIE chromaticity coordinates for PCs with different PSBs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Emission spectra at different excitation light incident angles. (b) Emission spectra under different power densities. (c) Transmission spectra at different incident angles. (d) Percentages of the three primary colors as excitation power varies. (e) CIE chromaticity coordinates of the PC (PSB centering at 550 nm) under different power densities.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)–(c) ln–ln plot of the H29/2I415/2, H211/2/S43/2I415/2, and F49/2I415/2 transitions. (d) The intensity ratio (RHS) of H211/2I15/2 to S43/2I15/2.

Equations (1)

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λ=2dhklm(neff2sin2θ),

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