Abstract

We report on-chip all-optical wavelength conversion of multicarrier multilevel modulation signals in a silicon waveguide. Using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) combined with advanced multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals (i.e., OFDM m-QAM), we experimentally demonstrate all-optical wavelength conversions of 3.2 Gbaud/s OFDM 16/32/64/128-QAM signals based on the degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) nonlinear effect in a silicon waveguide. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties of wavelength conversion are 3dB for OFDM 16-QAM and 4dB for OFDM 32-QAM at 7% forward error correction (FEC) threshold and 3.5dB for OFDM 64-QAM and 4.5dB for OFDM 128-QAM at 20% FEC threshold. The observed clear constellations of converted idlers imply favorable performance obtained for silicon-waveguide-based OFDM 16/32/64/128-QAM wavelength conversions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Ramu and B. Mukherjee, IEEE Netw. Trans. 10, 351 (2002).

2000 (1)

J. M. H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(3), 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. B. Yoo, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Hui and A. Mecozzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adams, R.

Albuquerque, A.

A. Albuquerque, B. J. Puttnam, M. Drummond, S. Shinada, R. Nogueira, and N. Wada, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2013), paper P.2.10.

Alic, N.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

Bogris, A.

Brun, M.

Chagnon, M.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)2009), paper PD2.6.

Chen, L. R.

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Contestabile, G.

G. Contestabile, Y. Yoshida, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 791 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, Y. Yoshida, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, Opt. Express 20, 27902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

Drummond, M.

A. Albuquerque, B. J. Puttnam, M. Drummond, S. Shinada, R. Nogueira, and N. Wada, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2013), paper P.2.10.

Dupuy, J.-Y.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

Elmirghani, J. M. H.

J. M. H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(3), 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.

Ettabib, M. A.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Filion, B.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Galili, M.

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hammani, K.

He, Z.

S. You, C. Li, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Y. Qiu, H. Li, Z. He, R. Hu, X. Xiao, and S. Yu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 801 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

Hu, J.

Hu, R.

S. You, C. Li, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Y. Qiu, H. Li, Z. He, R. Hu, X. Xiao, and S. Yu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 801 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. F.

Huang, Y. K.

Hui, R.

R. Hui and A. Mecozzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

Ip, E.

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, P.

Ji, H.

Jones, L.

Jones, R.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jopson, R.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

Jorge, F.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

Kapsalis, A.

Kawanishi, T.

Kitayama, K.

G. Contestabile, Y. Yoshida, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 791 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, Y. Yoshida, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, Opt. Express 20, 27902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (Wiley, 2004).

Konczykowska, A.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

Kuo, B. P. P.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

Labeye, P.

Larochelle, S.

Li, C.

S. You, C. Li, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Y. Qiu, H. Li, Z. He, R. Hu, X. Xiao, and S. Yu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 801 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

S. You, C. Li, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Y. Qiu, H. Li, Z. He, R. Hu, X. Xiao, and S. Yu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 801 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)2009), paper PD2.6.

Lu, G.

Luo, M.

S. You, C. Li, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Y. Qiu, H. Li, Z. He, R. Hu, X. Xiao, and S. Yu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 801 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Malekiha, M.

Maruta, A.

G. Contestabile, Y. Yoshida, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 791 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, Y. Yoshida, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, Opt. Express 20, 27902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

R. Hui and A. Mecozzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mouftah, H. T.

J. M. H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(3), 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

R. Ramu and B. Mukherjee, IEEE Netw. Trans. 10, 351 (2002).

Mulvad, H. C. H.

Myslivets, E.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

Ng, W. C.

Nguyen, A. T.

Nicoletti, S.

Nogueira, R.

A. Albuquerque, B. J. Puttnam, M. Drummond, S. Shinada, R. Nogueira, and N. Wada, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2013), paper P.2.10.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

Peckham, D. W.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)2009), paper PD2.6.

Petropoulos, P.

Peucheret, C.

Plant, D. V.

Pu, M.

Puttnam, B. J.

A. Albuquerque, B. J. Puttnam, M. Drummond, S. Shinada, R. Nogueira, and N. Wada, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2013), paper P.2.10.

Qian, D.

Qiu, Y.

S. You, C. Li, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Y. Qiu, H. Li, Z. He, R. Hu, X. Xiao, and S. Yu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 801 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

Ramu, R.

R. Ramu and B. Mukherjee, IEEE Netw. Trans. 10, 351 (2002).

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (Wiley, 2004).

Rong, H.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, L. A.

Sakamoto, T.

Shao, Y.

Shinada, S.

A. Albuquerque, B. J. Puttnam, M. Drummond, S. Shinada, R. Nogueira, and N. Wada, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2013), paper P.2.10.

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spasojevic, M.

Syvridis, D.

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wada, N.

A. Albuquerque, B. J. Puttnam, M. Drummond, S. Shinada, R. Nogueira, and N. Wada, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2013), paper P.2.10.

Wang, T.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

Winzer, P. J.

Wu, X.

X. Wu, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper AS2G.4.

Xiao, X.

S. You, C. Li, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Y. Qiu, H. Li, Z. He, R. Hu, X. Xiao, and S. Yu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 801 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

S. You, C. Li, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Y. Qiu, H. Li, Z. He, R. Hu, X. Xiao, and S. Yu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 801 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. B.

S. B. Yoo, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, Y.

G. Contestabile, Y. Yoshida, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 791 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, Y. Yoshida, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, Opt. Express 20, 27902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

You, S.

S. You, C. Li, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Y. Qiu, H. Li, Z. He, R. Hu, X. Xiao, and S. Yu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 801 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

S. You, C. Li, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Y. Qiu, H. Li, Z. He, R. Hu, X. Xiao, and S. Yu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 801 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Yvind, K.

Zhu, B.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)2009), paper PD2.6.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hui and A. Mecozzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. M. H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(3), 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Netw. Trans. (1)

R. Ramu and B. Mukherjee, IEEE Netw. Trans. 10, 351 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. You, C. Li, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Y. Qiu, H. Li, Z. He, R. Hu, X. Xiao, and S. Yu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 801 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, Y. Yoshida, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 791 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nature (1)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Other (5)

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (Wiley, 2004).

A. Albuquerque, B. J. Puttnam, M. Drummond, S. Shinada, R. Nogueira, and N. Wada, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2013), paper P.2.10.

A. H. Gnauck, E. Myslivets, M. Dinu, B. P. P. Kuo, P. Winzer, R. Jopson, N. Alic, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, and S. Radic, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2012), paper Th.2.F.2.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)2009), paper PD2.6.

X. Wu, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper AS2G.4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cross section and (b) calculated mode distribution of a typical silicon waveguide. (c) and (d) Measured scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fabricated silicon waveguide and grating coupling region.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of OFDM m-QAM wavelength conversion based on degenerate FWM in a silicon waveguide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for OFDM m-QAM wavelength conversion using a silicon waveguide. ECL, external cavity laser; AWG, arbitrary waveform generator; PC, polarization controller; WSS, wavelength selective switch; TOF, tunable optical filter; VOA, variable optical attenuator; LO, local oscillator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Received RF spectrum of OFDM m-QAM signal after demodulation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured spectra for (a) input OFDM m-QAM signal (point A in Fig. 3), (b) input pump (point B in Fig. 3), and (c) OFDM m-QAM wavelength conversion. Black dashed line: before conversion. Blue solid line: after conversion (point C in Fig. 3). Inset of (c) is the zoom-in spectrum of converted idler.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured BER versus received OSNR for wavelength conversions of multicarrier multilevel modulation signals: (a) OFDM 16-QAM, (b) OFDM 32-QAM, (c) OFDM 64-QAM, and (d) OFDM 128-QAM.

Metrics