Abstract

We demonstrate an on-chip optical phased array fabricated in a CMOS compatible process with continuous, fast (100 kHz), wide-angle (51°) beam-steering suitable for applications such as low-cost LIDAR systems. The device demonstrates the largest (51°) beam-steering and beam-spacing to date while providing the ability to steer continuously over the entire range. Continuous steering is enabled by a cascaded phase shifting architecture utilizing, low power and small footprint, thermo-optic phase shifters. We demonstrate these results in the telecom C-band, but the same design can easily be adjusted for any wavelength between 1.2 and 3.5 μm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2014

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, J. Covey, Y. Zhang, X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Lett. 39, 941 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

C. T. DeRose, R. D. Kekatpure, D. C. Trotter, A. Starbuck, J. R. Wendt, A. Yaacobi, M. R. Watts, U. Chettiar, N. Engheta, and P. S. Davids, Opt. Express 21, 5198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, Opt. Lett. 38, 733 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Yoo, T. Chan, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, Y. Rao, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 8633, 86330F (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

T. Luettel, M. Himmelsbach, and H. J. Wuensche, Proc. IEEE 100, 1831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

1997

1980

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Acoleyen, K. V.

Althouse, C.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ambrosius, H.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Askeland, J.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Baets, R.

Becker, J.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Binetti, P.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Bovington, J. T.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

Chan, T.

B. W. Yoo, T. Chan, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, Y. Rao, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 8633, 86330F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

B. W. Yoo, T. Chan, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, Y. Rao, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 8633, 86330F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Chettiar, U.

Coldren, L.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Covey, J.

Dannberg, P.

Davenport, M. L.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Davids, P. S.

DeRose, C.

DeRose, C. T.

Dolson, J.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Doylend, J. K.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

Fisher, A.

A. Fisher, Popular Sci.18 (2013).

Guo, W.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Heck, M. J. R.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Held, D.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Himmelsbach, M.

T. Luettel, M. Himmelsbach, and H. J. Wuensche, Proc. IEEE 100, 1831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Horsley, D. A.

B. W. Yoo, T. Chan, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, Y. Rao, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 8633, 86330F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, A.

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Houdré, R.

Hulme, J. C.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Jágerská, J.

Johansson, L.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kammel, S.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Karthe, W.

Kekatpure, R. D.

Kley, E. B.

Kolter, J. Z.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Kwong, D.

Langer, D.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Levinson, J.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Luettel, T.

T. Luettel, M. Himmelsbach, and H. J. Wuensche, Proc. IEEE 100, 1831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Masanovic, M.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M.

B. W. Yoo, T. Chan, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, Y. Rao, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 8633, 86330F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, K.

K. Takagi, K. Morikawa, T. Ogawa, and M. Saburi, in Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2006), pp. 120–125.

Nielson, G. N.

Ogawa, T.

K. Takagi, K. Morikawa, T. Ogawa, and M. Saburi, in Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2006), pp. 120–125.

Peters, J. D.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Pink, O.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Pratt, V.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Rao, Y.

B. W. Yoo, T. Chan, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, Y. Rao, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 8633, 86330F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rogier, H.

Saburi, M.

K. Takagi, K. Morikawa, T. Ogawa, and M. Saburi, in Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2006), pp. 120–125.

Schnabel, B.

Sokolsky, M.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Stanek, G.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Starbuck, A.

Stavens, D.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Subbaraman, H.

Sun, J.

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, Opt. Lett. 38, 733 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

B. W. Yoo, T. Chan, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, Y. Rao, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 8633, 86330F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, K.

K. Takagi, K. Morikawa, T. Ogawa, and M. Saburi, in Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2006), pp. 120–125.

Teichman, A.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Thomas, N. L.

Thrun, S.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Timurdogan, E.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

Waldhäusl, R.

Watts, M. R.

Wendt, J. R.

Werling, M.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

Wu, M. C.

B. W. Yoo, T. Chan, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, Y. Rao, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 8633, 86330F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wuensche, H. J.

T. Luettel, M. Himmelsbach, and H. J. Wuensche, Proc. IEEE 100, 1831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Yaacobi, A.

Yang, W.

B. W. Yoo, T. Chan, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, Y. Rao, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 8633, 86330F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, B. W.

B. W. Yoo, T. Chan, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, Y. Rao, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 8633, 86330F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. W.

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

W. Guo, P. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. Masanovic, H. Ambrosius, L. Johansson, and L. Coldren, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8500508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

T. Luettel, M. Himmelsbach, and H. J. Wuensche, Proc. IEEE 100, 1831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, Proc. SPIE 8989, 898907 (2014).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Yoo, T. Chan, M. Megens, T. Sun, W. Yang, Y. Rao, D. A. Horsley, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 8633, 86330F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Takagi, K. Morikawa, T. Ogawa, and M. Saburi, in Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2006), pp. 120–125.

J. Levinson, J. Askeland, J. Becker, J. Dolson, D. Held, S. Kammel, J. Z. Kolter, D. Langer, O. Pink, V. Pratt, M. Sokolsky, G. Stanek, D. Stavens, A. Teichman, M. Werling, and S. Thrun, in Fourth Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IEEE, 2011), pp. 163—168.

A. Fisher, Popular Sci.18 (2013).

HDL-64E in Velodyne Website, http://velodynelidar.com/lidar/hdlproducts/hdl64e.aspx .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Design: (a) A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation of a small section of the emitters showing the flux monitors used for calculating the amount of power extracted from the waveguide per unit length. An illustration of lateral, ϕ, and longitudinal, θ, angles is added at the top. (b) A schematic of the phase shifter showing the intrinsic waveguide (red), the lightly doped heater (blue), the high doped Si wires contacting the heater (purple) and the metals and contacts (gold/brown). (c) The architecture of the phased array showing the cascaded phase shifting drawn compatibly with Fig. 2(a). The red lines show the waveguide paths and the redundant phase trimmers were drawn to illustrate the components shown in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication: (a) A SEM image of the array showing the whole device and another SEM image (inset) magnifying the first two cascaded phase shifters. (b) A false-colored SEM of a single phase shifter illustrating the intrinsic waveguide (red), low doped resistor (blue), and high doped Si wires (purple). (c) SEM images of the first and last antenna gratings showing the difference in grating strength along the emitter. All SEM images were taken after removing the SiO2 cladding.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Far field images of slow steering show steering throughout the whole beam spacing. (b) Normalized frequency response of the phased array showing the 3 dB level at 100kHz with the inset illustrating the method we used to measure that frequency response. It shows actual, high-speed, steering images at different frequencies and proves how the amplitude decreases with frequency. The white circles in the images show the 0.4 numerical aperture of the imaging system (24° in radius).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sin(Δϕ)=λd,
sin(θN)=neffNλΛ,

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