Abstract

In this Letter, we present a highly compact and low-cost holographic microscope which is especially suitable for observing transparent samples with certain specific supports such as microchannels. This microscope employs only an inexpensive laser diode, a dual precision round aperture, and a digital light sensor. The total cost of the system except for the digital sensor is less than 400 US dollars, and a hand-held system can be made based on our setup. Besides the simple, cheap, and compact setup, this system can capture the off-axis interference pattern of two spherical waves and reconstruct the quantitative phase profile along with the amplitude image of the observed sample with the twin image eliminated in real time. Experimental results show that the resolution of our system is better than 2 μm, and the 3D structure of blood cells can be retrieved.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

N. Verrier and M. Atlan, Appl. Opt. 50, H136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Molony, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, and T. J. Naughton, Opt. Commun. 283, 903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Pavillon, C. S. Seelamantula, M. Unser, and C. Depeursinge, Proc. SPIE 7723, 77231U (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

J. W. Goodman and S. C. Gustafson, Opt. Eng. 35, 1513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Atlan, M.

Bishara, W.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carl, D.

Cuche, E.

Depeursinge, C.

Emery, Y.

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

Girshovitz, P.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman and S. C. Gustafson, Opt. Eng. 35, 1513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, S. C.

J. W. Goodman and S. C. Gustafson, Opt. Eng. 35, 1513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hennelly, B. M.

K. M. Molony, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, and T. J. Naughton, Opt. Commun. 283, 903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Isikman, S. O.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

T. Shimobaba, Y. Taniguchi, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, in Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JM3A.50.

Jericho, M.

Joyeux, D.

Kelly, D. P.

K. M. Molony, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, and T. J. Naughton, Opt. Commun. 283, 903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kemper, B.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kemper and G. von Bally, Appl. Opt. 47, A52 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Carl, B. Kemper, G. Wernicke, and G. von Bally, Appl. Opt. 43, 6536 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khademhosseini, B.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koren, G.

Kreuzer, H. J.

Marquet, P.

Masuda, N.

T. Shimobaba, Y. Taniguchi, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, in Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JM3A.50.

Molony, K. M.

K. M. Molony, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, and T. J. Naughton, Opt. Commun. 283, 903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monemhaghdoust, Z.

Montfort, F.

Moser, C.

Mudanyali, O.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Naughton, T. J.

K. M. Molony, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, and T. J. Naughton, Opt. Commun. 283, 903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oh, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozcan, A.

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oztoprak, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pavillon, N.

N. Pavillon, C. S. Seelamantula, M. Unser, and C. Depeursinge, Proc. SPIE 7723, 77231U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polack, F.

Rommel, C. E.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schnekenburger, J.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seelamantula, C. S.

N. Pavillon, C. S. Seelamantula, M. Unser, and C. Depeursinge, Proc. SPIE 7723, 77231U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sencan, I.

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shaked, N. T.

Shimobaba, T.

T. Shimobaba, Y. Taniguchi, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, in Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JM3A.50.

Shiraki, A.

T. Shimobaba, Y. Taniguchi, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, in Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JM3A.50.

Taniguchi, Y.

T. Shimobaba, Y. Taniguchi, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, in Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JM3A.50.

Tseng, D.

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Unser, M.

N. Pavillon, C. S. Seelamantula, M. Unser, and C. Depeursinge, Proc. SPIE 7723, 77231U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verrier, N.

Vollmer, A.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

von Bally, G.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kemper and G. von Bally, Appl. Opt. 47, A52 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Carl, B. Kemper, G. Wernicke, and G. von Bally, Appl. Opt. 43, 6536 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wernicke, G.

Xu, W.

Yaglidere, O.

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lab Chip (2)

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1417 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, Lab Chip 10, 1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. M. Molony, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, and T. J. Naughton, Opt. Commun. 283, 903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. W. Goodman and S. C. Gustafson, Opt. Eng. 35, 1513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. Pavillon, C. S. Seelamantula, M. Unser, and C. Depeursinge, Proc. SPIE 7723, 77231U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. Shimobaba, Y. Taniguchi, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, in Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JM3A.50.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System diagram.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of results of proposed system with results of Gabor in-line holography. Target: USAF 1951. For the proposed system, the source–sensor distance=29mm and the source–object distance=1mm (the distances shown in this Letter are calculated using the shifted frequency of the image and the distance between two pinholes); NA=0.20. For the Gabor in-line system, the configuration is roughly the same as the proposed system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Enlarged image of Fig. 2(e). The width of smallest element of USAF 1951 group 7 is 2.19 μm. A cross section of the amplitude image across the smallest bar demonstrates the resolution of proposed system to be <2.19μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reconstruction results of human stem cells using the proposed system. A photograph captured with 20×0.3NA lens using a traditional optical microscope is provided for comparison. Source–sensor distance=29.4mm; source-object distance=1.3mm; NA=0.2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Hologram of blood cells and its reconstructions. Source–sensor distance=29.5mm, source-object distance=1mm, NA=0.2. (a) Gray-scale hologram. (b) Phase reconstructions of (a); an enlarged picture of the highlighted area is provided on the upper-right corner. (c) Phase value of the white line on (b). (d) 3D rendering of highlighted area of (b).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Reconstructed phase image of a hologram of human stem cells (a) at 1270 μm and (b) at 1240μm.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=|R1(x,y)+O1(x,y)|2.
R1(x,y)=|R1(x,y)|exp(ikrR1),
O1(x,y)=O0(x,y)**hZ2(x,y),
hZ2(x,y)=exp(iπλZ2(x2+y2)).
O0(x,y)=(1+f(x,y))exp(ikrO0).
O1(x,y)=((1+f(x,y))exp(ikrO0))**hZ2R[Z2]Q[1Z1]{(1+f(x,y))}=Q[Z]V[1M]R[Z2M]{(1+f(x,y))}=Q[Z]R[MZ2]V[1M]{(1+f(x,y))}((1+f(xM,yM))**hM*Z2(x,y))exp(ikrO1),
O1(x,y)=O1(x,y)exp(ikrO1)(1+f(xM,yM))**hM*Z2(x,y),
I=|R1(x,y)|2+|O1(x,y)|2+|R1(x,y)|O1(x,y)exp[ik(rO1rR1)]+|R1(x,y)|O1*(x,y){exp[ik(rO1rR1)]}*.
fshdZλ,

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