Abstract

A compact force fiber sensor capable of measuring forces at the piconewton level is reported. It consists of a miniature Fabry–Perot cavity fabricated at the tip a single-mode fiber, in which the external reflector is a compliant photonic-crystal diaphragm that deflects when subjected to a force. In the laboratory environment, this sensor was able to detect a force of only 4pN generated by the radiation pressure of a laser beam. Its measured minimum detectable force (MDF) at 3 kHz was as weak as 1.3pN/Hz. In a quiet environment, the measured noise was 16 times lower, and the MDF predicted to be 76fN/Hz.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Binnig and C. F. Quate, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. D. Stowe, K. Yasumura, T. W. Kenny, D. Botkin, K. Wago, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 288 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, Nature 368, 113 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez, and H. E. Gaub, Science 276, 1109 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Arlett, E. B. Myers, and M. L. Roukes, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 203 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. T. Moy, E. L. Florin, and H. E. Gaub, Science 266, 257 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. J. Mamin and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3358 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Yamaguchi, Y. Hirayama, S. Miyashita, and S. Ishihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Usenko, A. Vinante, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 133105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Rugar, R. Budakian, H. J. Mamin, and B. W. Chui, Nature 430, 329 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. B. Chan, Science 291, 1941 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Moser, J. Guttinger, A. Eichler, M. J. Esplandiu, D. E. Liu, M. I. Dykman, and A. Bachtold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 493 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Wieduwilt, S. Brückner, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Luo, J.-L. Kou, Y. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133502 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. M. Chung, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and H.-Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 700 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Gong, C.-B. Yu, T.-T. Wang, X.-P. Liu, Y. Wu, Y.-J. Rao, M.-L. Zhang, H.-J. Wu, X.-X. Chen, and G.-D. Peng, Opt. Express 22, 3578 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Chen, S.-C. Yan, X. Zheng, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Opt. Express 22, 2443 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  20. O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, and O. Solgaard, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3049 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. C. Akkaya, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 21, 1347 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Jo, O. C. Akkaya, O. Solgaard, and M. J. F. Digonnet, Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 785 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Suh, M. F. Yanik, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1999 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. C. Giancoli, Physics: Principles and Applications (Pearson Education, 2014).
  25. O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1837 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells (McGraw-Hill, 1959).
  27. J. Degallaix, R. Flaminio, D. Forest, M. Granata, C. Michel, L. Pinard, T. Bertrand, and G. Cagnoli, Opt. Lett. 38, 2047 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. B. Churnside, R. M. A. Sullan, D. M. Nguyen, S. O. Case, M. S. Bull, G. M. King, and T. T. Perkins, Nano Lett. 12, 3557 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. W. Jung, B. Park, J. Provine, and R. T. Howe, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1367 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Wang and M. J. Butte, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology, and Allergy, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Customized atomic force microscopy tip by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer.”

2014

2013

W. Jo, O. C. Akkaya, O. Solgaard, and M. J. F. Digonnet, Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 785 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Degallaix, R. Flaminio, D. Forest, M. Granata, C. Michel, L. Pinard, T. Bertrand, and G. Cagnoli, Opt. Lett. 38, 2047 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Moser, J. Guttinger, A. Eichler, M. J. Esplandiu, D. E. Liu, M. I. Dykman, and A. Bachtold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 493 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

W. Luo, J.-L. Kou, Y. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chung, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and H.-Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Churnside, R. M. A. Sullan, D. M. Nguyen, S. O. Case, M. S. Bull, G. M. King, and T. T. Perkins, Nano Lett. 12, 3557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. C. Akkaya, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 21, 1347 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1837 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Jung, B. Park, J. Provine, and R. T. Howe, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1367 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Usenko, A. Vinante, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 133105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Wieduwilt, S. Brückner, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Arlett, E. B. Myers, and M. L. Roukes, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, and O. Solgaard, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Yamaguchi, Y. Hirayama, S. Miyashita, and S. Ishihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Rugar, R. Budakian, H. J. Mamin, and B. W. Chui, Nature 430, 329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. Suh, M. F. Yanik, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1999 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. J. Mamin and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3358 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Chan, Science 291, 1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. D. Stowe, K. Yasumura, T. W. Kenny, D. Botkin, K. Wago, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez, and H. E. Gaub, Science 276, 1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. T. Moy, E. L. Florin, and H. E. Gaub, Science 266, 257 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1986

G. Binnig and C. F. Quate, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Akkaya, O. C.

W. Jo, O. C. Akkaya, O. Solgaard, and M. J. F. Digonnet, Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 785 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. C. Akkaya, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 21, 1347 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arlett, J. L.

J. L. Arlett, E. B. Myers, and M. L. Roukes, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bachtold, A.

J. Moser, J. Guttinger, A. Eichler, M. J. Esplandiu, D. E. Liu, M. I. Dykman, and A. Bachtold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 493 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H.

T. Wieduwilt, S. Brückner, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bertrand, T.

Binnig, G.

G. Binnig and C. F. Quate, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Botkin, D.

T. D. Stowe, K. Yasumura, T. W. Kenny, D. Botkin, K. Wago, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brückner, S.

T. Wieduwilt, S. Brückner, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Budakian, R.

D. Rugar, R. Budakian, H. J. Mamin, and B. W. Chui, Nature 430, 329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bull, M. S.

A. B. Churnside, R. M. A. Sullan, D. M. Nguyen, S. O. Case, M. S. Bull, G. M. King, and T. T. Perkins, Nano Lett. 12, 3557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Butte, M. J.

A. Wang and M. J. Butte, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology, and Allergy, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Customized atomic force microscopy tip by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer.”

Cagnoli, G.

Case, S. O.

A. B. Churnside, R. M. A. Sullan, D. M. Nguyen, S. O. Case, M. S. Bull, G. M. King, and T. T. Perkins, Nano Lett. 12, 3557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. B.

H. B. Chan, Science 291, 1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.-X.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S.-C. Yan, X. Zheng, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Opt. Express 22, 2443 (2014).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, J.-L. Kou, Y. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chui, B. W.

D. Rugar, R. Budakian, H. J. Mamin, and B. W. Chui, Nature 430, 329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K. M.

K. M. Chung, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and H.-Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Churnside, A. B.

A. B. Churnside, R. M. A. Sullan, D. M. Nguyen, S. O. Case, M. S. Bull, G. M. King, and T. T. Perkins, Nano Lett. 12, 3557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Datskos, P. G.

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degallaix, J.

Digonnet, M.

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, and O. Solgaard, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

W. Jo, O. C. Akkaya, O. Solgaard, and M. J. F. Digonnet, Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 785 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. C. Akkaya, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 21, 1347 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1837 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dykman, M. I.

J. Moser, J. Guttinger, A. Eichler, M. J. Esplandiu, D. E. Liu, M. I. Dykman, and A. Bachtold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 493 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, A.

J. Moser, J. Guttinger, A. Eichler, M. J. Esplandiu, D. E. Liu, M. I. Dykman, and A. Bachtold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 493 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Esplandiu, M. J.

J. Moser, J. Guttinger, A. Eichler, M. J. Esplandiu, D. E. Liu, M. I. Dykman, and A. Bachtold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 493 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

W. Suh, M. F. Yanik, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1999 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, J. M.

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez, and H. E. Gaub, Science 276, 1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Finer, J. T.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flaminio, R.

Florin, E. L.

V. T. Moy, E. L. Florin, and H. E. Gaub, Science 266, 257 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Forest, D.

Gaub, H. E.

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez, and H. E. Gaub, Science 276, 1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. T. Moy, E. L. Florin, and H. E. Gaub, Science 266, 257 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gautel, M.

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez, and H. E. Gaub, Science 276, 1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gavartin, E.

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giancoli, D. C.

D. C. Giancoli, Physics: Principles and Applications (Pearson Education, 2014).

Gong, Y.

Granata, M.

Guttinger, J.

J. Moser, J. Guttinger, A. Eichler, M. J. Esplandiu, D. E. Liu, M. I. Dykman, and A. Bachtold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 493 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, Y.

H. Yamaguchi, Y. Hirayama, S. Miyashita, and S. Ishihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Howe, R. T.

Ishihara, S.

H. Yamaguchi, Y. Hirayama, S. Miyashita, and S. Ishihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jo, W.

W. Jo, O. C. Akkaya, O. Solgaard, and M. J. F. Digonnet, Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 785 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. W.

Kenny, T. W.

T. D. Stowe, K. Yasumura, T. W. Kenny, D. Botkin, K. Wago, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kilic, O.

O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1837 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, and O. Solgaard, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

King, G. M.

A. B. Churnside, R. M. A. Sullan, D. M. Nguyen, S. O. Case, M. S. Bull, G. M. King, and T. T. Perkins, Nano Lett. 12, 3557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G.

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, and O. Solgaard, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

O. C. Akkaya, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 21, 1347 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1837 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kou, J.-L.

W. Luo, J.-L. Kou, Y. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lavrik, N. V.

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D. E.

J. Moser, J. Guttinger, A. Eichler, M. J. Esplandiu, D. E. Liu, M. I. Dykman, and A. Bachtold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 493 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.-P.

Liu, Z.

K. M. Chung, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and H.-Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

K. M. Chung, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and H.-Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-Q.

Y. Chen, S.-C. Yan, X. Zheng, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Opt. Express 22, 2443 (2014).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, J.-L. Kou, Y. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W.

W. Luo, J.-L. Kou, Y. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mamin, H. J.

D. Rugar, R. Budakian, H. J. Mamin, and B. W. Chui, Nature 430, 329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Mamin and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3358 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Michel, C.

Miyashita, S.

H. Yamaguchi, Y. Hirayama, S. Miyashita, and S. Ishihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moser, J.

J. Moser, J. Guttinger, A. Eichler, M. J. Esplandiu, D. E. Liu, M. I. Dykman, and A. Bachtold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 493 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moy, V. T.

V. T. Moy, E. L. Florin, and H. E. Gaub, Science 266, 257 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Myers, E. B.

J. L. Arlett, E. B. Myers, and M. L. Roukes, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. M.

A. B. Churnside, R. M. A. Sullan, D. M. Nguyen, S. O. Case, M. S. Bull, G. M. King, and T. T. Perkins, Nano Lett. 12, 3557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oesterhelt, F.

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez, and H. E. Gaub, Science 276, 1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oosterkamp, T. H.

O. Usenko, A. Vinante, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 133105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

Peng, G.-D.

Perkins, T. T.

A. B. Churnside, R. M. A. Sullan, D. M. Nguyen, S. O. Case, M. S. Bull, G. M. King, and T. T. Perkins, Nano Lett. 12, 3557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pinard, L.

Provine, J.

Quate, C. F.

G. Binnig and C. F. Quate, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y.-J.

Rief, M.

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez, and H. E. Gaub, Science 276, 1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roukes, M. L.

J. L. Arlett, E. B. Myers, and M. L. Roukes, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rugar, D.

D. Rugar, R. Budakian, H. J. Mamin, and B. W. Chui, Nature 430, 329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Mamin and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3358 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Stowe, K. Yasumura, T. W. Kenny, D. Botkin, K. Wago, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sepaniak, M. J.

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, R. M.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Solgaard, O.

W. Jo, O. C. Akkaya, O. Solgaard, and M. J. F. Digonnet, Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 785 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. C. Akkaya, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 21, 1347 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1837 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, and O. Solgaard, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Suh, M. F. Yanik, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1999 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spudich, J. A.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, T. D.

T. D. Stowe, K. Yasumura, T. W. Kenny, D. Botkin, K. Wago, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suh, W.

W. Suh, M. F. Yanik, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1999 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sullan, R. M. A.

A. B. Churnside, R. M. A. Sullan, D. M. Nguyen, S. O. Case, M. S. Bull, G. M. King, and T. T. Perkins, Nano Lett. 12, 3557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H.-Y.

K. M. Chung, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and H.-Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Timoshenko, S. P.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells (McGraw-Hill, 1959).

Usenko, O.

O. Usenko, A. Vinante, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 133105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Verlot, P.

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vinante, A.

O. Usenko, A. Vinante, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 133105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wago, K.

T. D. Stowe, K. Yasumura, T. W. Kenny, D. Botkin, K. Wago, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

A. Wang and M. J. Butte, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology, and Allergy, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Customized atomic force microscopy tip by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer.”

Wang, T.-T.

Wieduwilt, T.

T. Wieduwilt, S. Brückner, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wijts, G.

O. Usenko, A. Vinante, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 133105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Woinowsky-Krieger, S.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells (McGraw-Hill, 1959).

Wu, H.-J.

Wu, Y.

Xu, F.

Y. Chen, S.-C. Yan, X. Zheng, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Opt. Express 22, 2443 (2014).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, J.-L. Kou, Y. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, H.

H. Yamaguchi, Y. Hirayama, S. Miyashita, and S. Ishihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, S.-C.

Yanik, M. F.

W. Suh, M. F. Yanik, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1999 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yasumura, K.

T. D. Stowe, K. Yasumura, T. W. Kenny, D. Botkin, K. Wago, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-B.

Zhang, M.-L.

Zheng, X.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. D. Stowe, K. Yasumura, T. W. Kenny, D. Botkin, K. Wago, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Mamin and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3358 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamaguchi, Y. Hirayama, S. Miyashita, and S. Ishihara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Usenko, A. Vinante, G. Wijts, and T. H. Oosterkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 133105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, J.-L. Kou, Y. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Suh, M. F. Yanik, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1999 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. M. Chung, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and H.-Y. Tam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

O. Kilic, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1837 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Microelectromech. Syst.

O. C. Akkaya, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 21, 1347 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

T. Wieduwilt, S. Brückner, and H. Bartelt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, and O. Solgaard, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

A. B. Churnside, R. M. A. Sullan, D. M. Nguyen, S. O. Case, M. S. Bull, G. M. King, and T. T. Perkins, Nano Lett. 12, 3557 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

J. L. Arlett, E. B. Myers, and M. L. Roukes, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Gavartin, P. Verlot, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Moser, J. Guttinger, A. Eichler, M. J. Esplandiu, D. E. Liu, M. I. Dykman, and A. Bachtold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 493 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. Rugar, R. Budakian, H. J. Mamin, and B. W. Chui, Nature 430, 329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, Nature 368, 113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

W. Jo, O. C. Akkaya, O. Solgaard, and M. J. F. Digonnet, Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 785 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. Binnig and C. F. Quate, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez, and H. E. Gaub, Science 276, 1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Chan, Science 291, 1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. T. Moy, E. L. Florin, and H. E. Gaub, Science 266, 257 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Wang and M. J. Butte, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology, and Allergy, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Customized atomic force microscopy tip by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer.”

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells (McGraw-Hill, 1959).

D. C. Giancoli, Physics: Principles and Applications (Pearson Education, 2014).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the force sensor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup to measure the sensitivity, noise, and minimum detectable force of the fiber force sensor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured force between 2.5 and 3.5 kHz.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F=αPc(1),
SF=1PindPrdF=dRdLcav1kdia.
u0=u0(1d2a22d2a2lnad),

Metrics