Abstract

We investigate the photocurrent generation by two-photon absorption effect in silicon microdisk resonators integrated with p-n diodes. The photocurrent is quite dependent on the p-n junction position with respect to the whispering gallery mode. Avalanche gain increases significantly when the bias exceeds 19V, leading to considerable enhancement of photocurrent. At 22V bias with on-chip optical power of 44.7 μW, the responsivity exceeds 1 A/W with an avalanche gain of 188 while the dark current is more than 50 times lower than the photocurrent.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Casalino, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, Sensors 10, 10571 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 261 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
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  10. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Opt. Express 16, 1659 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. Y. Zhao, C. Xu, X. Jiang, and H. Ge, J. Semicond. 34, 064009 (2013).
  15. Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and A. W. Poon, Opt. Lett. 38, 5200 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 307 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  19. S. Miller, Phys. Rev. 99, 1234 (1955).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

Y. Zhao, C. Xu, X. Jiang, and H. Ge, J. Semicond. 34, 064009 (2013).

Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and A. W. Poon, Opt. Lett. 38, 5200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Casalino, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, Sensors 10, 10571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Opt. Express 16, 1659 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, and I. Rendina, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

S. Miller, Phys. Rev. 99, 1234 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Barkai, A.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Casalino, M.

M. Casalino, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, Sensors 10, 10571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, and I. Rendina, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

H. Zhu, L. Zhou, X. Sun, J. Xie, X. Li, and J. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.38.

Cohen, O.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coppola, G.

M. Casalino, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, Sensors 10, 10571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deneault, S.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dim-Lee, K.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Feng, S.

Gan, F.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ge, H.

Y. Zhao, C. Xu, X. Jiang, and H. Ge, J. Semicond. 34, 064009 (2013).

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grein, M. E.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo-Qiang, L.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Iodice, M.

M. Casalino, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, Sensors 10, 10571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Jessop, P. E.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Y. Zhao, C. Xu, X. Jiang, and H. Ge, J. Semicond. 34, 064009 (2013).

Jun-Feng, S.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaertner, F. X.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kah-Wee, A.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koehl, S.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lennon, D. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

H. Zhu, L. Zhou, X. Sun, J. Xie, X. Li, and J. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.38.

Li, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Logan, D. F.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S.

S. Miller, Phys. Rev. 99, 1234 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Ming-Bin, Y.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, L.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, and I. Rendina, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M. T.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K. K.

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, in Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2014), pp. 49–50.

Notomi, M.

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

L. Vivien and L. Pavesi, in Handbook of Silicon Photonics (Taylor & Francis, 2013), pp. 155–168.

Poon, A. W.

Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, and A. W. Poon, Opt. Lett. 38, 5200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qing, F.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

M. Casalino, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, Sensors 10, 10571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, and I. Rendina, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schulein, R. T.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sirleto, L.

M. Casalino, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, Sensors 10, 10571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, and I. Rendina, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sumikura, H.

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

H. Zhu, L. Zhou, X. Sun, J. Xie, X. Li, and J. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.38.

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, in Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2014), pp. 49–50.

Tanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsung-Yang, L.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Velha, P.

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien and L. Pavesi, in Handbook of Silicon Photonics (Taylor & Francis, 2013), pp. 155–168.

Xie, J.

H. Zhu, L. Zhou, X. Sun, J. Xie, X. Li, and J. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.38.

Xu, C.

Y. Zhao, C. Xu, X. Jiang, and H. Ge, J. Semicond. 34, 064009 (2013).

Yong-Zhong, X.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J. U.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, C. Xu, X. Jiang, and H. Ge, J. Semicond. 34, 064009 (2013).

Zhou, L.

H. Zhu, L. Zhou, X. Sun, J. Xie, X. Li, and J. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.38.

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, L. Zhou, X. Sun, J. Xie, X. Li, and J. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.38.

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, M. B. Yu, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, IEEE J. Selec. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, A. P. Knights, and P. E. Jessop, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Logan, P. Velha, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 16, 307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Semicond. (1)

Y. Zhao, C. Xu, X. Jiang, and H. Ge, J. Semicond. 34, 064009 (2013).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. Miller, Phys. Rev. 99, 1234 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, and I. Rendina, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

M. Casalino, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, Sensors 10, 10571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

L. Vivien and L. Pavesi, in Handbook of Silicon Photonics (Taylor & Francis, 2013), pp. 155–168.

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, in Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2014), pp. 49–50.

H. Zhu, L. Zhou, X. Sun, J. Xie, X. Li, and J. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.38.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic drawing of the p-n diode embedded microdisk resonator. (b) Microscope image of the fabricated device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated electric field distribution in the p-n junction and three lowest radial order WGMs in devices I and II.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) and (b) Measured transmission spectra showing three resonance modes (TE0, TE1, and TE2). (c) and (d) Measured current spectra. (e) and (f) Measured peak current as a function of on-chip optical power. The bias voltage is 3V. The left column of plots is for device I and the right for device II.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) and (b) Measured transmission spectra under various on-chip power levels at 3V. (c) and (d) Measured peak current as a function of reverse bias. The left column of plots is for TE0 in device I and the right for TE1 in device II.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) and (b) Contrast ratio between the photocurrent and the dark current at various on-chip power levels as a function of reverse bias. (c) and (d) Responsivity and avalanche gain as a function of reverse bias. (a) and (c): TE0 in device I; (b) and (d): TE1 in device II. Insets: magnified plots for the voltage range from 19V to 23V.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Resonance Properties of the Microdisk WGMs

Equations (1)

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M=[1(V/Vb)n]1,

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