Abstract

We propose an alternative method to laser cooling. Our approach utilizes the extreme brightness of a supersonic atomic beam, and the adiabatic atomic coilgun to slow atoms in the beam or to bring them to rest. We show how internal-state optical pumping and stimulated optical transitions, combined with magnetic forces, can be used to cool the translational motion of atoms. This approach does not rely on momentum transfer from photons to atoms, as in laser cooling. We predict that our method can surpass laser cooling in terms of flux of ultracold atoms and phase-space density, with lower required laser power.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. W. Hänsch and A. L. Schawlow, Opt. Commun. 13, 68 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 637 (1975).
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  4. R. Compargue, ed., Atom and Molecular Beams: The State of the Art 2000 (Springer, 2001).
  5. M. G. Raizen, Science 324, 1403 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Lavert-Ofir, S. Gersten, A. B. Henson, I. Shani, L. David, J. Narevicius, and E. Narevicius, New J. Phys. 13, 103030 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Narevicius and M. G. Raizen, Chem. Rev. 112, 4879 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. U. Even, M. Hillenkamp, and S. Keinan, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8699 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. I. Kaiser, A. G. Suits, and U. Even, Tel-Aviv University (private communication, 2013).
  10. R. I. Kaiser and A. G. Suits, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5405 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. The exception is for metastable noble-gas atoms, created in a gas discharge, where the fraction is smaller, about 10−4.
  12. C. Cohen-Tannoudji and A. Kastler, Prog. Opt. 5, 1 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. S. Ivanov, Y. V. Rozhdestvensky, and K.-A. Suominen, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033422 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. Stern, Z. Phys. 7, 249 (1921) [translation: Z. Phys. D: At. Mol. Clusters 10, 114 (1988)].
    [CrossRef]
  16. Mention of the bias field is often omitted from the discussion of the Stern–Gerlach experiment, leading to the apparent “paradox” in the observation that state separation only occurs along one axis. See P. Alstrom, P. Hjorth, and R. Mattuck, Am. J. Phys. 50, 697 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Kasevich and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Kuhn, H. Perrin, W. Hänsel, and C. Salomon, “Three dimensional Raman cooling using velocity selective rapid adiabatic passage,” arXiv:1109.5237v2 (2011).
  19. D. Tupa, L. W. Anderson, D. L. Huber, and J. E. Lawler, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1045 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. K. Stuhl, B. C. Sawyer, D. Wang, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243002 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, and D. DeMille, Nature 467, 820 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Kasevich and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. A. Kasevich, Science 298, 1363 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Castillo-Garza, J. Gardner, S. Zisman, and M. G. Raizen, ACS Nano 7, 4378 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

R. Castillo-Garza, J. Gardner, S. Zisman, and M. G. Raizen, ACS Nano 7, 4378 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

E. Narevicius and M. G. Raizen, Chem. Rev. 112, 4879 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ivanov, Y. V. Rozhdestvensky, and K.-A. Suominen, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033422 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

E. Lavert-Ofir, S. Gersten, A. B. Henson, I. Shani, L. David, J. Narevicius, and E. Narevicius, New J. Phys. 13, 103030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, and D. DeMille, Nature 467, 820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. G. Raizen, Science 324, 1403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

B. K. Stuhl, B. C. Sawyer, D. Wang, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

U. Even, M. Hillenkamp, and S. Keinan, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. A. Kasevich, Science 298, 1363 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. I. Kaiser and A. G. Suits, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5405 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. A. Kasevich and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. Tupa, L. W. Anderson, D. L. Huber, and J. E. Lawler, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1045 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Mention of the bias field is often omitted from the discussion of the Stern–Gerlach experiment, leading to the apparent “paradox” in the observation that state separation only occurs along one axis. See P. Alstrom, P. Hjorth, and R. Mattuck, Am. J. Phys. 50, 697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

T. W. Hänsch and A. L. Schawlow, Opt. Commun. 13, 68 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 637 (1975).

1966 (1)

C. Cohen-Tannoudji and A. Kastler, Prog. Opt. 5, 1 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1921 (1)

O. Stern, Z. Phys. 7, 249 (1921) [translation: Z. Phys. D: At. Mol. Clusters 10, 114 (1988)].
[CrossRef]

Alstrom, P.

Mention of the bias field is often omitted from the discussion of the Stern–Gerlach experiment, leading to the apparent “paradox” in the observation that state separation only occurs along one axis. See P. Alstrom, P. Hjorth, and R. Mattuck, Am. J. Phys. 50, 697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, L. W.

D. Tupa, L. W. Anderson, D. L. Huber, and J. E. Lawler, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1045 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Barber, Z. W.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barry, J. F.

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, and D. DeMille, Nature 467, 820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beck, K. M.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, S.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, M. M.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, G. K.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Castillo-Garza, R.

R. Castillo-Garza, J. Gardner, S. Zisman, and M. G. Raizen, ACS Nano 7, 4378 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kasevich and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji and A. Kastler, Prog. Opt. 5, 1 (1966).
[CrossRef]

David, L.

E. Lavert-Ofir, S. Gersten, A. B. Henson, I. Shani, L. David, J. Narevicius, and E. Narevicius, New J. Phys. 13, 103030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Miranda, M. H. G.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dehmelt, H.

D. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 637 (1975).

DeMille, D.

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, and D. DeMille, Nature 467, 820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Even, U.

U. Even, M. Hillenkamp, and S. Keinan, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Kaiser, A. G. Suits, and U. Even, Tel-Aviv University (private communication, 2013).

Foreman, S. M.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J.

R. Castillo-Garza, J. Gardner, S. Zisman, and M. G. Raizen, ACS Nano 7, 4378 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gersten, S.

E. Lavert-Ofir, S. Gersten, A. B. Henson, I. Shani, L. David, J. Narevicius, and E. Narevicius, New J. Phys. 13, 103030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. W. Hänsch and A. L. Schawlow, Opt. Commun. 13, 68 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hänsel, W.

A. Kuhn, H. Perrin, W. Hänsel, and C. Salomon, “Three dimensional Raman cooling using velocity selective rapid adiabatic passage,” arXiv:1109.5237v2 (2011).

Henson, A. B.

E. Lavert-Ofir, S. Gersten, A. B. Henson, I. Shani, L. David, J. Narevicius, and E. Narevicius, New J. Phys. 13, 103030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, R.

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hillenkamp, M.

U. Even, M. Hillenkamp, and S. Keinan, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hjorth, P.

Mention of the bias field is often omitted from the discussion of the Stern–Gerlach experiment, leading to the apparent “paradox” in the observation that state separation only occurs along one axis. See P. Alstrom, P. Hjorth, and R. Mattuck, Am. J. Phys. 50, 697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F.-L.

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huber, D. L.

D. Tupa, L. W. Anderson, D. L. Huber, and J. E. Lawler, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1045 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, V. S.

V. S. Ivanov, Y. V. Rozhdestvensky, and K.-A. Suominen, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033422 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R. I.

R. I. Kaiser and A. G. Suits, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5405 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Kaiser, A. G. Suits, and U. Even, Tel-Aviv University (private communication, 2013).

Kasevich, M.

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1741 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kasevich, M. A.

M. A. Kasevich, Science 298, 1363 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kasevich and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kastler, A.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji and A. Kastler, Prog. Opt. 5, 1 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Katori, H.

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keinan, S.

U. Even, M. Hillenkamp, and S. Keinan, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, A.

A. Kuhn, H. Perrin, W. Hänsel, and C. Salomon, “Three dimensional Raman cooling using velocity selective rapid adiabatic passage,” arXiv:1109.5237v2 (2011).

Lavert-Ofir, E.

E. Lavert-Ofir, S. Gersten, A. B. Henson, I. Shani, L. David, J. Narevicius, and E. Narevicius, New J. Phys. 13, 103030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lawler, J. E.

D. Tupa, L. W. Anderson, D. L. Huber, and J. E. Lawler, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1045 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, Y.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, N. D.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A. D.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. J.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mattuck, R.

Mention of the bias field is often omitted from the discussion of the Stern–Gerlach experiment, leading to the apparent “paradox” in the observation that state separation only occurs along one axis. See P. Alstrom, P. Hjorth, and R. Mattuck, Am. J. Phys. 50, 697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H.

H. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, Laser Cooling (Springer-Verlag, 1999).

Narevicius, E.

E. Narevicius and M. G. Raizen, Chem. Rev. 112, 4879 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Lavert-Ofir, S. Gersten, A. B. Henson, I. Shani, L. David, J. Narevicius, and E. Narevicius, New J. Phys. 13, 103030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Narevicius, J.

E. Lavert-Ofir, S. Gersten, A. B. Henson, I. Shani, L. David, J. Narevicius, and E. Narevicius, New J. Phys. 13, 103030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, H.

A. Kuhn, H. Perrin, W. Hänsel, and C. Salomon, “Three dimensional Raman cooling using velocity selective rapid adiabatic passage,” arXiv:1109.5237v2 (2011).

Poli, N.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raizen, M. G.

R. Castillo-Garza, J. Gardner, S. Zisman, and M. G. Raizen, ACS Nano 7, 4378 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Narevicius and M. G. Raizen, Chem. Rev. 112, 4879 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Raizen, Science 324, 1403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rozhdestvensky, Y. V.

V. S. Ivanov, Y. V. Rozhdestvensky, and K.-A. Suominen, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033422 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, C.

A. Kuhn, H. Perrin, W. Hänsel, and C. Salomon, “Three dimensional Raman cooling using velocity selective rapid adiabatic passage,” arXiv:1109.5237v2 (2011).

Sawyer, B. C.

B. K. Stuhl, B. C. Sawyer, D. Wang, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

T. W. Hänsch and A. L. Schawlow, Opt. Commun. 13, 68 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shani, I.

E. Lavert-Ofir, S. Gersten, A. B. Henson, I. Shani, L. David, J. Narevicius, and E. Narevicius, New J. Phys. 13, 103030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shuman, E. S.

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, and D. DeMille, Nature 467, 820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stalnaker, J. E.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stern, O.

O. Stern, Z. Phys. 7, 249 (1921) [translation: Z. Phys. D: At. Mol. Clusters 10, 114 (1988)].
[CrossRef]

Stuhl, B. K.

B. K. Stuhl, B. C. Sawyer, D. Wang, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suits, A. G.

R. I. Kaiser and A. G. Suits, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5405 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Kaiser, A. G. Suits, and U. Even, Tel-Aviv University (private communication, 2013).

Suominen, K.-A.

V. S. Ivanov, Y. V. Rozhdestvensky, and K.-A. Suominen, Phys. Rev. A 85, 033422 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takamoto, M.

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, Nature 435, 321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Theuer, H.

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, J. W.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, Science 319, 1805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tupa, D.

D. Tupa, L. W. Anderson, D. L. Huber, and J. E. Lawler, Phys. Rev. A 33, 1045 (1986).
[CrossRef]

van der Straten, P.

H. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, Laser Cooling (Springer-Verlag, 1999).

Wang, D.

B. K. Stuhl, B. C. Sawyer, D. Wang, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 243002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D.

D. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 637 (1975).

Ye, J.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of MOP cooling. (a) Momentum-space cooling in which atoms are first optically pumped into the m=0 state. A velocity-selective STIRAP pulse is then applied to transfer all atoms in the left half of the velocity distribution into the m=1 state. A magnetic field gradient is next applied to translate the mean velocity of the selected atom ensemble to overlap with the m=0 state atoms. Optical pumping is finally applied to drive the atoms back to the m=0 state. (b) Spatial focusing: spatially selected atoms are first optically pumped into the m=1 state. Magnetic field gradients are then used to translate the selected atoms toward the m=0 atoms. Optical pumping finally drives atoms back to the m=0 state.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Numerical simulation results showing snapshots of the phase-space distribution (PSD) taken at different cooling stages. (a) and (b) show the initial PSD. (c) and (d) show the PSD after applying the STIRAP pulse. Red and black dots represent atoms in the m=1 and m=0 states, respectively. (e) and (f) show PSD after applying a uniform magnetic field gradient that gives a velocity kick, overlapping the atoms in velocity space. (g), (h) PSD after application of optical pumping that drives m=1 atoms back into the m=0 state. Note, that gray and red histograms represent velocity distributions for atoms in the m=0 and m=1 states, respectively.

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