Abstract

We report a demonstration of the first continuous-wave (cw) mid-IR microlaser operating at room temperature (RT). Our whispering-gallery-mode microlaser—operating at 2.71 μm—is based on a heavily erbium-doped high-Q ZBLAN microsphere optically pumped by a 980 nm diode laser; with a threshold pump power of <150μW.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Mehrabani and A. M. Armani, Opt. Lett. 38, 4346 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

R. K. Jain and M. Hossein-Zadeh, Proc. SPIE 8621, 86210R (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Mescia, P. Bia, O. Losito, and F. Prudenzano, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1501308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Mehrabani and A. M. Armani, Opt. Lett. 38, 4346 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Deng, R. Flores-Flores, R. K. Jain, and M. Hossein-Zadeh, Opt. Lett. 38, 4413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

X. Zhu and R. K. Jain, Opt. Lett. 33, 1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2003 (3)

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445 (2003).

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Krier, V. V. Sherstnev, D. Wright, A. M. Monakhov, and G. Hill, Electron. Lett. 39, 916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, C.R. Chim. 5, 873 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, and R. Mucke, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1984 (1)

D. C. Tun, G. H. Sigel, and B. Bendow, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 556 (1984).

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, C.R. Chim. 5, 873 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

Armani, D. K.

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Astakhova, A. P.

E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baranov, A. N.

E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bendow, B.

D. C. Tun, G. H. Sigel, and B. Bendow, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 556 (1984).

Bia, P.

L. Mescia, P. Bia, O. Losito, and F. Prudenzano, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1501308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Mescia, P. Bia, M. De Sario, A. Di Tommaso, and F. Prudenzano, Opt. Express 20, 7616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boissier, G.

E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Plédel, C.

Bureau, B.

Cai, M.

De Sario, M.

Deng, Y.

Di Tommaso, A.

Faber, A. J.

Flores-Flores, R.

Fried, A.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445 (2003).

Grebenshchikova, E. A.

E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G.

A. Krier, V. V. Sherstnev, D. Wright, A. M. Monakhov, and G. Hill, Electron. Lett. 39, 916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hossein-Zadeh, M.

Il’inskaya, N. D.

E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jahier, E.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

Kormann, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, and R. Mucke, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krier, A.

A. Krier, V. V. Sherstnev, D. Wright, A. M. Monakhov, and G. Hill, Electron. Lett. 39, 916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lissillour, F.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Long, R.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Losito, O.

L. Mescia, P. Bia, O. Losito, and F. Prudenzano, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1501308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.

Lucas, J.

Lucas, P.

Maurer, K.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, and R. Mucke, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maurugeon, S.

Mehrabani, S.

Mescia, L.

L. Mescia, P. Bia, O. Losito, and F. Prudenzano, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1501308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Mescia, P. Bia, M. De Sario, A. Di Tommaso, and F. Prudenzano, Opt. Express 20, 7616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Monakhov, A. M.

E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Krier, V. V. Sherstnev, D. Wright, A. M. Monakhov, and G. Hill, Electron. Lett. 39, 916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, and R. Mucke, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Polman, A.

Poppe, E.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prudenzano, F.

L. Mescia, P. Bia, O. Losito, and F. Prudenzano, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1501308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Mescia, P. Bia, M. De Sario, A. Di Tommaso, and F. Prudenzano, Opt. Express 20, 7616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J.-M.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445 (2003).

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, C.R. Chim. 5, 873 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sercel, P. C.

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, C.R. Chim. 5, 873 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sherstnev, V. V.

E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Krier, V. V. Sherstnev, D. Wright, A. M. Monakhov, and G. Hill, Electron. Lett. 39, 916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, G. H.

D. C. Tun, G. H. Sigel, and B. Bendow, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 556 (1984).

Silver, J. A.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, and R. Mucke, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, B.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tafoya, J.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Teissier, R.

E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445 (2003).

Tran, D.

D. Tran, Infrared Fiber Systems (private communication, 2012).

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Troles, J.

Tun, D. C.

D. C. Tun, G. H. Sigel, and B. Bendow, J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 556 (1984).

Vahala, K. J.

van Loon, R. V. A.

Von Klitzing, W.

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Way, B.

Werle, P.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, and R. Mucke, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wright, D.

A. Krier, V. V. Sherstnev, D. Wright, A. M. Monakhov, and G. Hill, Electron. Lett. 39, 916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, Yu. P.

E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

T. Lu, L. Yang, R. V. A. van Loon, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 34, 482 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Yang, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.R. Chim. (1)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, C.R. Chim. 5, 873 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

A. Krier, V. V. Sherstnev, D. Wright, A. M. Monakhov, and G. Hill, Electron. Lett. 39, 916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

L. Mescia, P. Bia, O. Losito, and F. Prudenzano, IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1501308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, and R. Mucke, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. K. Jain and M. Hossein-Zadeh, Proc. SPIE 8621, 86210R (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. A. Grebenshchikova, N. D. Il’inskaya, V. V. Sherstnev, A. M. Monakhov, A. P. Astakhova, Yu. P. Yakovlev, G. Boissier, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 918 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Top. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445 (2003).

Other (1)

D. Tran, Infrared Fiber Systems (private communication, 2012).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Partial energy level diagram of the Er+3 ion. ETU1 and ETU2 designate energy transfer upconversion processes (ETU1 rate>ETU2 rate) that become important at high pump intensities and small inter-ion separations (high doping densities) [17].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Basic experimental setup for the optically pumped mid-IR Er:ZBLAN microlaser. Micrographs of Er:ZBLAN microspheres of 180μm diameter, before (b) and during (c) optimized optical pumping.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured mid-IR laser output power plotted against absorbed pump power for the microspherical laser shown in Fig. 2(b). The absorbed pump power reported here is the difference between the transmitted pump powers in the presence and absence of the Er:ZBLAN microsphere.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured output spectrum of the mid-IR emission from the Er:ZBLAN microspherical laser at an absorbed pump power of 300 μW.

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