Abstract

Efficient narrowband light absorption by a metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structure can lead to high-speed light-to-heat conversion at a micro- or nanoscale. Such a MIM structure can serve as a heater for achieving all-optical light control based on the thermo-optical (TO) effect. Here we experimentally fabricated and characterized a novel all-optical switch based on a silicon microdisk integrated with a MIM light absorber. Direct integration of the absorber on top of the microdisk reduces the thermal capacity of the whole device, leading to high-speed TO switching of the microdisk resonance. The measurement result exhibits a rise time of 2.0 μs and a fall time of 2.6 μs with switching power as low as 0.5 mW; the product of switching power and response time is only about 1.3mW·μs. Since no auxiliary elements are required for the heater, the switch is structurally compact, and its fabrication is rather easy. The device potentially can be deployed for new kinds of all-optical applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (4)

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, Opt. Lett. 38, 733 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Sci. Rep. 3, 1803 (2013).

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, J. Opt. 15, 025006 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, Nat. Photonics 4, 511 (2010).
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P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 20298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. Park, A. Fang, S. Kodama, and J. Bowers, Opt. Express 13, 9460 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039 (2004).
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M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, and T. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Dehlinger, S. Koester, J. Schaub, J. Chu, Q. Ouyang, and A. Grill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

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[CrossRef]

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M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039 (2004).
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V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Assanto, G.

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
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Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

A. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
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H. Park, A. Fang, S. Kodama, and J. Bowers, Opt. Express 13, 9460 (2005).
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Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, Nat. Photonics 4, 511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Sci. Rep. 3, 1803 (2013).

Cheben, P.

Chen, L.

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
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Chu, J.

G. Dehlinger, S. Koester, J. Schaub, J. Chu, Q. Ouyang, and A. Grill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
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G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
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Dai, D.

F. Lou, Z. Wang, D. Dai, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, in International Photonics and Optoelectronics Meetings/Information Optoelectronics, Nanofabrication and Testing (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper IF2A.

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G. Dehlinger, S. Koester, J. Schaub, J. Chu, Q. Ouyang, and A. Grill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547 (2004).
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Delage, A.

Densmore, A.

DeRose, C.

Dong, P.

Fang, A.

A. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. Fang, S. Kodama, and J. Bowers, Opt. Express 13, 9460 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Feng, D.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M.

M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, and T. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gosciniak, J.

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Sci. Rep. 3, 1803 (2013).

Grill, A.

G. Dehlinger, S. Koester, J. Schaub, J. Chu, Q. Ouyang, and A. Grill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
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M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Janz, S.

Jones, R.

A. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kapulainen, M.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, S.

Koester, S.

G. Dehlinger, S. Koester, J. Schaub, J. Chu, Q. Ouyang, and A. Grill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Lapointe, J.

Li, G.

Liang, D.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, Nat. Photonics 4, 511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

L. Chen and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 17, 7901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lou, F.

F. Lou, M. Yan, L. Thylen, M. Qiu, and L. Wosinski, Opt. Express 22, 8490 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Lou, Z. Wang, D. Dai, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, in International Photonics and Optoelectronics Meetings/Information Optoelectronics, Nanofabrication and Testing (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper IF2A.

Luck, D. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Lyszczarz, T.

M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, and T. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Namavar, F.

A. Rickman, G. Reed, and F. Namavar, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1771 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nielson, G. N.

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, Opt. Lett. 38, 733 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Ouyang, Q.

G. Dehlinger, S. Koester, J. Schaub, J. Chu, Q. Ouyang, and A. Grill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

A. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. Fang, S. Kodama, and J. Bowers, Opt. Express 13, 9460 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Qiu, M.

F. Lou, M. Yan, L. Thylen, M. Qiu, and L. Wosinski, Opt. Express 22, 8490 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G.

A. Rickman, G. Reed, and F. Namavar, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1771 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rickman, A.

A. Rickman, G. Reed, and F. Namavar, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1771 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, J.

G. Dehlinger, S. Koester, J. Schaub, J. Chu, Q. Ouyang, and A. Grill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S.

M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, and T. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, Opt. Lett. 38, 733 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thylen, L.

F. Lou, M. Yan, L. Thylen, M. Qiu, and L. Wosinski, Opt. Express 22, 8490 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Lou, Z. Wang, D. Dai, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, in International Photonics and Optoelectronics Meetings/Information Optoelectronics, Nanofabrication and Testing (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper IF2A.

Timurdogan, E.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, Opt. Lett. 38, 733 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Vachon, M.

Wang, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

F. Lou, Z. Wang, D. Dai, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, in International Photonics and Optoelectronics Meetings/Information Optoelectronics, Nanofabrication and Testing (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper IF2A.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, J. Sun, C. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and G. N. Nielson, Opt. Lett. 38, 733 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, Nature 493, 195 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

Williamson, R.

M. Geis, S. Spector, R. Williamson, and T. Lyszczarz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

F. Lou, M. Yan, L. Thylen, M. Qiu, and L. Wosinski, Opt. Express 22, 8490 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Lou, Z. Wang, D. Dai, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, in International Photonics and Optoelectronics Meetings/Information Optoelectronics, Nanofabrication and Testing (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper IF2A.

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Diagram of SOI microdisk resonator integrated with a MIM absorber disk on top. (b) SEM image of the MIM absorber integrated Si disk coupled to a straight waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured absorption spectra of MIM absorbers. (b) Optical microscopic bright-feld image of MAI Si disk. The inset on the left side is the laser pump beam profile, with a Gaussian waist of 4.6 μm. The inset on the right side is the near-infrared dark field image of the MAI Si disk, where the MIM absorber is clearly shown as a darker round region in the center.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Measured transmission spectrum of the MAI Si disk. (b) Measured transmission spectrum of the MAI Si disk around 1553.48 nm, fitted by a damped oscillation model.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured transmission spectra of the MAI Si disk operating at a temperature ranging from 20°C to 35°C. (b) Wavelength shift versus temperature increase of the whispering-gallery mode in the MAI Si disk. (c) Measured transmission spectra of the MAI Si disk optically pumped by a continuous-wave laser beam with power on sample ranging from 0.00 to 0.52 mW. (d) Wavelength shift versus pumping optical power of the photothermally tuned MAI Si disk.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic of the experimental setup for measuring the photothermal tuning of MAI disk. CW laser, continuous wave laser; EO, electro-optic; BS, beam splitter; OL, objective lens; EP, eyepiece; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; TEC, thermoelectric controller.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured temporal transmitted optical signal of the MAI Si disk resonator, pumped by a square-wave modulated beam with duty cycle of 50% and periods of (a) 40 μs, (b) 20 μs, (c) 10 μs, and (d) 4 μs.

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