Abstract

Spectrally encoded flow cytometry (SEFC) is a promising technique for imaging blood in the microcirculation. Yet, the dependency of one of the axes of the image on time prevents effective quantification of essential clinical parameters. Here, we address this challenge by splitting the optical path in an SEFC system into two parallel imaging lines, followed by straightforward data analysis for recovering the flow speed from the multiplexed data. The method is demonstrated by measuring the flow velocity of latex beads and blood cells in vitro. The system allows real-time velocity measurements of up to 11.7mm/s at high spatial resolution, and could be integrated into existing SEFC systems for effectively measuring blood parameters in small capillary vessels.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. D. P. Hart, J. Vis. 3, 187 (2000).
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2012 (2)

2011 (1)

C. van Berkel, J. D. Gwyer, S. Deane, N. Green, J. Holloway, V. Hollis, and H. Morgan, Lab Chip 11, 1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (4)

A. S. Popel and P. C. Johnson, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 37, 43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, and V. V. Tuchin, Opt. Lett. 30, 628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ekberg, U. D. Larsen, and N. Fogh-Andersen, Point Care 4, 64 (2005).

B. J. Bain, N. Engl. J. Med. 353, 498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. K. Murray, A. L. Herrick, and T. A. King, Rheumatology 43, 1210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. P. Hart, J. Vis. 3, 187 (2000).

1999 (1)

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. D. Jennings and K. A. Foon, Blood 90, 2863 (1997).

1996 (1)

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, Exp. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

I. Yoshiya, Y. Shimada, and K. Tanaka, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 27 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

H. Wayland and P. C. Johnson, J. Appl. Physiol. 22, 333 (1967).

Bain, B. J.

B. J. Bain, N. Engl. J. Med. 353, 498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, G. J.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, C.

C. Briggs, S. Kimber, and L. Green, Br. J. Haematol. 158, 679 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dann, E. J.

Deane, S.

C. van Berkel, J. D. Gwyer, S. Deane, N. Green, J. Holloway, V. Hollis, and H. Morgan, Lab Chip 11, 1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ekberg, B. A.

B. A. Ekberg, U. D. Larsen, and N. Fogh-Andersen, Point Care 4, 64 (2005).

Fogh-Andersen, N.

B. A. Ekberg, U. D. Larsen, and N. Fogh-Andersen, Point Care 4, 64 (2005).

Foon, K. A.

C. D. Jennings and K. A. Foon, Blood 90, 2863 (1997).

Fox, R.

R. Fox, A. McDonald, and P. J. Pritchard, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed. (Wiley, 2006).

Galanzha, E. I.

Gharib, M.

C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, Exp. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Golan, L.

Gong, W.

Green, L.

C. Briggs, S. Kimber, and L. Green, Br. J. Haematol. 158, 679 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Green, N.

C. van Berkel, J. D. Gwyer, S. Deane, N. Green, J. Holloway, V. Hollis, and H. Morgan, Lab Chip 11, 1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Groner, W.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gwyer, J. D.

C. van Berkel, J. D. Gwyer, S. Deane, N. Green, J. Holloway, V. Hollis, and H. Morgan, Lab Chip 11, 1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harris, A. G.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hart, D. P.

D. P. Hart, J. Vis. 3, 187 (2000).

Herrick, A. L.

A. K. Murray, A. L. Herrick, and T. A. King, Rheumatology 43, 1210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoffbrand, V.

V. Hoffbrand and P. Moss, Essential Haematology (Wiley, 2011), Vol. 39.

Hollis, V.

C. van Berkel, J. D. Gwyer, S. Deane, N. Green, J. Holloway, V. Hollis, and H. Morgan, Lab Chip 11, 1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, J.

C. van Berkel, J. D. Gwyer, S. Deane, N. Green, J. Holloway, V. Hollis, and H. Morgan, Lab Chip 11, 1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ince, C.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, C. D.

C. D. Jennings and K. A. Foon, Blood 90, 2863 (1997).

Johnson, P. C.

A. S. Popel and P. C. Johnson, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 37, 43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Wayland and P. C. Johnson, J. Appl. Physiol. 22, 333 (1967).

Kimber, S.

C. Briggs, S. Kimber, and L. Green, Br. J. Haematol. 158, 679 (2012).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

A. K. Murray, A. L. Herrick, and T. A. King, Rheumatology 43, 1210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, U. D.

B. A. Ekberg, U. D. Larsen, and N. Fogh-Andersen, Point Care 4, 64 (2005).

McDonald, A.

R. Fox, A. McDonald, and P. J. Pritchard, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed. (Wiley, 2006).

Messmer, K.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minai, L.

Morgan, H.

C. van Berkel, J. D. Gwyer, S. Deane, N. Green, J. Holloway, V. Hollis, and H. Morgan, Lab Chip 11, 1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moss, P.

V. Hoffbrand and P. Moss, Essential Haematology (Wiley, 2011), Vol. 39.

Murray, A. K.

A. K. Murray, A. L. Herrick, and T. A. King, Rheumatology 43, 1210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, R. G.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popel, A. S.

A. S. Popel and P. C. Johnson, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 37, 43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pritchard, P. J.

R. Fox, A. McDonald, and P. J. Pritchard, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed. (Wiley, 2006).

Sheppard, C. J.

Shimada, Y.

I. Yoshiya, Y. Shimada, and K. Tanaka, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 27 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Si, K.

Tanaka, K.

I. Yoshiya, Y. Shimada, and K. Tanaka, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 27 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V. V.

van Berkel, C.

C. van Berkel, J. D. Gwyer, S. Deane, N. Green, J. Holloway, V. Hollis, and H. Morgan, Lab Chip 11, 1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wayland, H.

H. Wayland and P. C. Johnson, J. Appl. Physiol. 22, 333 (1967).

Webster, S.

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Westerweel, J.

J. Westerweel, in Laser Techniques Applied to Fluid Mechanics, R. J. Adrian, D. F. G. Durao, F. Durst, M. V. Heitor, M. Maeda, and J. H. Whitelaw, eds. (Springer, 2000), pp. 37–55.

Willert, C. E.

C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, Exp. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Winkelman, J. W.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeheskely-Hayon, D.

Yelin, D.

Yoshiya, I.

I. Yoshiya, Y. Shimada, and K. Tanaka, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 27 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zharov, V. P.

Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (1)

A. S. Popel and P. C. Johnson, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 37, 43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Blood (1)

C. D. Jennings and K. A. Foon, Blood 90, 2863 (1997).

Br. J. Haematol. (1)

C. Briggs, S. Kimber, and L. Green, Br. J. Haematol. 158, 679 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, Exp. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

H. Wayland and P. C. Johnson, J. Appl. Physiol. 22, 333 (1967).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Vis. (1)

D. P. Hart, J. Vis. 3, 187 (2000).

Lab Chip (1)

C. van Berkel, J. D. Gwyer, S. Deane, N. Green, J. Holloway, V. Hollis, and H. Morgan, Lab Chip 11, 1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

I. Yoshiya, Y. Shimada, and K. Tanaka, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 27 (1980).
[CrossRef]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

B. J. Bain, N. Engl. J. Med. 353, 498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, Nat. Med. 5, 1209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Point Care (1)

B. A. Ekberg, U. D. Larsen, and N. Fogh-Andersen, Point Care 4, 64 (2005).

Rheumatology (1)

A. K. Murray, A. L. Herrick, and T. A. King, Rheumatology 43, 1210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

V. Hoffbrand and P. Moss, Essential Haematology (Wiley, 2011), Vol. 39.

J. Westerweel, in Laser Techniques Applied to Fluid Mechanics, R. J. Adrian, D. F. G. Durao, F. Durst, M. V. Heitor, M. Maeda, and J. H. Whitelaw, eds. (Springer, 2000), pp. 37–55.

R. Fox, A. McDonald, and P. J. Pritchard, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed. (Wiley, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of the correlative SEFC optical setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Point-spread functions resulting from (a) a full aperture of an uncropped SEFC beam, (b) the cropped aperture of the beam passing through the wedge prism, and (c) the cropped aperture of the remaining on-axis beam. Upper-right insets, simulated apertures. Lower-right insets, corresponding speckle images of a scattering target.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Velocity measurement of flowing latex beads. (a) Correlative SEFC raw image. Arrows mark two images of the same bead. (b) Schematic illustration of the potential imaging configurations that result in the observed y axis shift. (c) Two-dimensional autocorrelation of the raw data. τ denotes the separation between the two peaks. (d) Measured versus expected velocities show small and consistent deviation from the identity (dashed) line.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Correlative SEFC imaging of diluted blood flow in vitro. (a) Raw data, arrows mark double images of a red blood cell. (b) Two-dimensional autocorrelation image of the raw data, corresponding to a velocity of 0.45±0.13mm/s.

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