Abstract

We demonstrate a scheme for long-range, high-precision absolute distance measurement based on frequency detection using two optoelectronic oscillators to convert distance information to frequency information. The two-oscillator design offers the unique advantage of self-referencing. By taking advantage of the accumulative magnification theory, the error of the measured distance is decreased by approximately 105 fold, which significantly improves the precision of the measured distance. In our experiments, the maximum error is ±1.5μm at an emulated distance of approximately 3.35 km, including a drift error of approximately 1 μm in the air path due to the variation of environmental conditions. The highest relative measurement precision achieved in our current system is 4.5×1010.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. E. Pritchard and M. Simons, Nature 418, 167 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Pierce, J. Leitch, M. Stephens, P. Bender, and R. Nerem, Appl. Opt. 47, 5007 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Fox, B. R. Washburn, N. R. Newbury, and L. Hollberg, Appl. Opt. 44, 7793 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. L. Swinkels, N. Bhattacharya, and J. J. M. Braat, Opt. Lett. 30, 2242 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. T. Estler, K. L. Edmundson, G. N. Peggs, and D. H. Parker, CIRP Ann. 51, 587 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. P. Lay, S. Dubovitsky, R. D. Peters, and J. P. Burger, Opt. Lett. 28, 890 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. C. Williams and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Opt. Lett. 14, 542 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 21, 483 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. L. Duy, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, J. Zyss, L. V. H. Nam, and V. V. Luc, in Asia–Pacific Microwave Photon. Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 131–134.
  15. T. Zhang, J. Zhu, T. Guo, J. Wang, and S. Ye, Appl. Opt. 52, 3495 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Jiang, J.-L. Yu, Y.-T. Wang, L.-T. Zhang, and E.-Z. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 807 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2010 (1)

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

Y. Jiang, J.-L. Yu, Y.-T. Wang, L.-T. Zhang, and E.-Z. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

W. T. Estler, K. L. Edmundson, G. N. Peggs, and D. H. Parker, CIRP Ann. 51, 587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Pritchard and M. Simons, Nature 418, 167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Bender, P.

Bender, P. L.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, N.

Braat, J. J. M.

Buller, G. S.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burger, J. P.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, J. O.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dubovitsky, S.

Duy, N. L.

N. L. Duy, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, J. Zyss, L. V. H. Nam, and V. V. Luc, in Asia–Pacific Microwave Photon. Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 131–134.

Edmundson, K. L.

W. T. Estler, K. L. Edmundson, G. N. Peggs, and D. H. Parker, CIRP Ann. 51, 587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Estler, W. T.

W. T. Estler, K. L. Edmundson, G. N. Peggs, and D. H. Parker, CIRP Ann. 51, 587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Faller, J. E.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fox, R. W.

Guo, T.

Hollberg, L.

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, J.-L. Yu, Y.-T. Wang, L.-T. Zhang, and E.-Z. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Journet, B.

N. L. Duy, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, J. Zyss, L. V. H. Nam, and V. V. Luc, in Asia–Pacific Microwave Photon. Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 131–134.

Kim, S.-W.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-J.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lay, O. P.

Ledoux-Rak, I.

N. L. Duy, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, J. Zyss, L. V. H. Nam, and V. V. Luc, in Asia–Pacific Microwave Photon. Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 131–134.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leitch, J.

Luc, V. V.

N. L. Duy, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, J. Zyss, L. V. H. Nam, and V. V. Luc, in Asia–Pacific Microwave Photon. Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 131–134.

Maleki, L.

Nam, L. V. H.

N. L. Duy, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, J. Zyss, L. V. H. Nam, and V. V. Luc, in Asia–Pacific Microwave Photon. Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 131–134.

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nerem, R.

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fox, B. R. Washburn, N. R. Newbury, and L. Hollberg, Appl. Opt. 44, 7793 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Newhall, X. X.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Parker, D. H.

W. T. Estler, K. L. Edmundson, G. N. Peggs, and D. H. Parker, CIRP Ann. 51, 587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peggs, G. N.

W. T. Estler, K. L. Edmundson, G. N. Peggs, and D. H. Parker, CIRP Ann. 51, 587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrini, S.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peters, R. D.

Pickrell, G.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, R.

Pritchard, M. E.

M. E. Pritchard and M. Simons, Nature 418, 167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ricklefs, R. L.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ries, J. G.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shelus, P. J.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simons, M.

M. E. Pritchard and M. Simons, Nature 418, 167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, M.

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swinkels, B. L.

Veillet, C.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, A. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, X.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-T.

Y. Jiang, J.-L. Yu, Y.-T. Wang, L.-T. Zhang, and E.-Z. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, B. R.

Whipple, A. L.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wiant, J. R.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

Williams, C. C.

Williams, J. G.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, E.-Z.

Y. Jiang, J.-L. Yu, Y.-T. Wang, L.-T. Zhang, and E.-Z. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

Ye, S.

Yoder, C. F.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.-L.

Y. Jiang, J.-L. Yu, Y.-T. Wang, L.-T. Zhang, and E.-Z. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.-T.

Y. Jiang, J.-L. Yu, Y.-T. Wang, L.-T. Zhang, and E.-Z. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

Zhu, J.

Zyss, J.

N. L. Duy, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, J. Zyss, L. V. H. Nam, and V. V. Luc, in Asia–Pacific Microwave Photon. Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 131–134.

Appl. Opt. (3)

CIRP Ann. (1)

W. T. Estler, K. L. Edmundson, G. N. Peggs, and D. H. Parker, CIRP Ann. 51, 587 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Jiang, J.-L. Yu, Y.-T. Wang, L.-T. Zhang, and E.-Z. Yang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. E. Pritchard and M. Simons, Nature 418, 167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, Science 265, 482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

N. L. Duy, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, J. Zyss, L. V. H. Nam, and V. V. Luc, in Asia–Pacific Microwave Photon. Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 131–134.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic schematic of the OEO-based ADM system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup of ADM system based on two OEOs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) RF spectrum of the measurement oscillator in dual-loop mode (SPAN 500 kHz, RBW 3 kHz). (b) RF spectrum of the measurement oscillator in single-loop mode (the optical switch in path ① is off) (SPAN 500 kHz, RBW 3 kHz).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured distance and residuals of the measured distance over 1.5 m (at an emulated 3.35-km distance) versus actual data from a commercial Michelson interferometer.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L=12(cnfbcτ0n).
L=12(NcnfNcτ0n).
|ΔLL|=(2nL+cτ02nL)|ΔfNfN|.
N=fNfb-rough,

Metrics