Abstract

Conventional dual-polarization coherent receivers require polarization beam splitters for either the signal or the local oscillator path. This severely hinders monolithic integration, since integrated polarization splitting devices often exhibit stringent fabrication tolerances. Here we propose a dual-polarization monolithically integrated coherent receiver architecture that completely avoids the use of polarization splitting elements. Polarization management is instead achieved by adequately engineering the birefringence of the interconnecting waveguides. The resultant receiver is highly tolerant to fabrication deviations and thus offers a completely new route for monolithic integration of dual-polarization receivers without any type of active tuning.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

2013

2012

P. J. Reyes-Iglesias, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, Opt. Express 21, 23018 (2012).

2011

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai, Z. Wang, and E. J. Bowers, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 1808 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Bach, H.-G.

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Zhang, A. Ortega-Moñux, R. Halir, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Runge, K. Janiak, G. Zhou, H.-G. Bach, A. G. Steffan, and I. Molina-Fernández, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 361 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, R. Zhang, P. Runge, K. Janiak, H.-G. Bach, A. G. Steffan, and I. Molina-Fernández, Opt. Express 21, 14146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Kunkel, H.-G. Bach, R. Zhang, D. Hoffmann, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Romero-García, I. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, in Compound Semiconductor Week and 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Barros, D. J. F.

Bowers, E. J.

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fatadin, I.

I. Fatadin, S. J. Savory, and D. Ives, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halir, R.

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Zhang, A. Ortega-Moñux, R. Halir, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Runge, K. Janiak, G. Zhou, H.-G. Bach, A. G. Steffan, and I. Molina-Fernández, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 361 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, R. Zhang, P. Runge, K. Janiak, H.-G. Bach, A. G. Steffan, and I. Molina-Fernández, Opt. Express 21, 14146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Kunkel, H.-G. Bach, R. Zhang, D. Hoffmann, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Romero-García, I. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, in Compound Semiconductor Week and 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Hoffmann, D.

R. Kunkel, H.-G. Bach, R. Zhang, D. Hoffmann, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Romero-García, I. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, in Compound Semiconductor Week and 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Houtsma, V.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T.-C.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ip, E.

Ives, D.

I. Fatadin, S. J. Savory, and D. Ives, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Janiak, K.

Kahn, J. M.

Kikuchi, K.

Kunkel, R.

R. Kunkel, H.-G. Bach, R. Zhang, D. Hoffmann, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Romero-García, I. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, in Compound Semiconductor Week and 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Lau, A. P. T.

Molina-Fernández, I.

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Zhang, A. Ortega-Moñux, R. Halir, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Runge, K. Janiak, G. Zhou, H.-G. Bach, A. G. Steffan, and I. Molina-Fernández, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 361 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, R. Zhang, P. Runge, K. Janiak, H.-G. Bach, A. G. Steffan, and I. Molina-Fernández, Opt. Express 21, 14146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Reyes-Iglesias, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, Opt. Express 21, 23018 (2012).

R. Kunkel, H.-G. Bach, R. Zhang, D. Hoffmann, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Romero-García, I. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, in Compound Semiconductor Week and 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Neilson, D. T.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ortega-Moñux, A.

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Zhang, A. Ortega-Moñux, R. Halir, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Runge, K. Janiak, G. Zhou, H.-G. Bach, A. G. Steffan, and I. Molina-Fernández, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 361 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, R. Zhang, P. Runge, K. Janiak, H.-G. Bach, A. G. Steffan, and I. Molina-Fernández, Opt. Express 21, 14146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Reyes-Iglesias, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, Opt. Express 21, 23018 (2012).

R. Kunkel, H.-G. Bach, R. Zhang, D. Hoffmann, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Romero-García, I. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, in Compound Semiconductor Week and 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Pérez-Galacho, D.

Reyes-Iglesias, P. J.

P. J. Reyes-Iglesias, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, Opt. Express 21, 23018 (2012).

Romero-García, S.

R. Kunkel, H.-G. Bach, R. Zhang, D. Hoffmann, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Romero-García, I. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, in Compound Semiconductor Week and 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Runge, P.

Sauer, N. J.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Savory, S. J.

S. J. Savory, Opt. Express 16, 804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Fatadin, S. J. Savory, and D. Ives, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schell, M.

R. Kunkel, H.-G. Bach, R. Zhang, D. Hoffmann, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Romero-García, I. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, in Compound Semiconductor Week and 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Schmidt, D.

R. Kunkel, H.-G. Bach, R. Zhang, D. Hoffmann, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Romero-García, I. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, in Compound Semiconductor Week and 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Steffan, A. G.

Wang, Z.

Weimann, N.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Zhang, A. Ortega-Moñux, R. Halir, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Runge, K. Janiak, G. Zhou, H.-G. Bach, A. G. Steffan, and I. Molina-Fernández, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 361 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, R. Zhang, P. Runge, K. Janiak, H.-G. Bach, A. G. Steffan, and I. Molina-Fernández, Opt. Express 21, 14146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Kunkel, H.-G. Bach, R. Zhang, D. Hoffmann, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Romero-García, I. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, in Compound Semiconductor Week and 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Zhou, G.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. J. Winzer, N. Weimann, V. Houtsma, T.-C. Hu, N. J. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, S. Chandrasekhar, and Y. K. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Fatadin, S. J. Savory, and D. Ives, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1733 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

Mirthe Project, http://www.ist-mirthe.eu/ .

R. Kunkel, H.-G. Bach, R. Zhang, D. Hoffmann, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Romero-García, I. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, in Compound Semiconductor Week and 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF), http://www.oiforum.com .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of proposed PBS-less dual-polarization coherent receiver. SMF, single-mode fiber; PMF, polarization maintaining fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Block diagram describing dual-polarization coherent receiver based on (a) conventional PBS based and (b) proposed PBS-less approaches. (c) Separate diagrams for orthogonal polarizations in proposed PBS-less scheme.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Penalty of the PBS-less approach as a function of the differential phase shift error (ϵϕ).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Birefringence Δβ of a fully etched InP/InGaAsP waveguide (see inset) as a function of the width. (b) Differential phase shift error ϵϕ as a function of the waveguide width deviation ϵW.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S¯=[Ix+jQxIy+jQy];L¯=[LxLy]=[LOcos(θL)LOsin(θL)],
[O1O2O3O4]=K·[1010010110100101]·[IxQxIyQy]=M¯¯·[IxQxIyQy],
ϕDist=(γSAγLA)(γSBγLB),
ϕDist=(2p+1)·180°,p=0,1,,

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