Abstract

We present a generic phase-domain processing method for detecting speckles in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The physics behind the interferometry is revisited and analytically along with simulation results it indicates that the speckle formation comes with phase distortion to the complex OCT signal. The first and the second derivatives of phase along the imaging depth are then calculated for speckle identification. The phase-domain processing method was applied to images acquired by both spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT systems, and the experimental results show that this method enables pixel-wise speckle identification.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Bashkansky and J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 25, 545 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. D. Duncan, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and R. K. Wang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 9 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 125 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. Healey, S. Leeman, and F. Forsberg, Acoust. Imaging 19, 433 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, Opt. Express 11, 3116 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. Cense, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Lett. 30, 2131 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, Appl. Opt. 43, 2874 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).
  11. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Hausler and M. W. Linduer, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. A. Lindenmaier, L. Conroy, G. Farhat, R. S. DaCosta, C. Flueraru, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Lett. 38, 1280 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Opt. Lett. 33, 1530 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2000 (2)

M. Bashkansky and J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 25, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Hausler and M. W. Linduer, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. J. Healey, S. Leeman, and F. Forsberg, Acoust. Imaging 19, 433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akkin, T.

Bajraszewski, T.

Bashkansky, M.

Boccara, C.

Cable, A.

Cense, B.

Conroy, L.

DaCosta, R. S.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, Opt. Express 11, 3116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, A.

Duncan, D. D.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Farhat, G.

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flueraru, C.

Forsberg, F.

A. J. Healey, S. Leeman, and F. Forsberg, Acoust. Imaging 19, 433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).

Grieve, K.

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Linduer, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Healey, A. J.

A. J. Healey, S. Leeman, and F. Forsberg, Acoust. Imaging 19, 433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Joo, C.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Khurana, M.

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

Lecaque, R.

Lee, S. L.

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leeman, S.

A. J. Healey, S. Leeman, and F. Forsberg, Acoust. Imaging 19, 433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, Opt. Express 11, 3116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leung, M. K. K.

Lindenmaier, A. A.

Linduer, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Linduer, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mariampillai, A.

Moneron, G.

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, E. H.

Munce, N. R.

Park, B. H.

Reintjes, J.

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmetterer, L.

Schmitt, J. M.

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Standish, B. A.

Sticker, M.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vabre, L.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, R. K.

Wilson, B. C.

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, V. X. D.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzki, R.

Acoust. Imaging (1)

A. J. Healey, S. Leeman, and F. Forsberg, Acoust. Imaging 19, 433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Hausler and M. W. Linduer, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulation of speckle formation. (a) The intensity of the OCT signal in one A-scan where speckle is formed by the interference of two backscattered events v1(z) and v2(z). (b) The first derivative of the phase along depth for the OCT signal in (a). (c) The second derivative of the phase along depth for the OCT signal in (a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A-scan signal along depth measured from a silica-nanosphere embedded resin phantom by an SD-OCT system. (a) A-scan data and the detected speckle pixels indicated with red circles. (b) The first derivative of phase along depth. (c) The second derivative of phase along depth. The blue boxes in (b) and (c) denote the phase derivative thresholds, and values outside the boxes are regarded as distortion that comes with speckles.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Detected speckles from the image acquired by an SD-OCT system with different coherence lengths. (a) A representative fingertip OCT image. (b), (c) The detected speckles (in red) corresponding to the areas marked in (a) with a 3.36 μm coherence length. (d), (e) The detected speckles corresponding to the areas marked in (a) with an 8 μm coherence length. The speckles were plotted in red and overlaid onto the gray-scale OCT images.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Detected speckles from the image acquired by an SS-OCT system. (a) A representative fingernail image. (b) The detected speckles corresponding to the area marked in (a). The speckles were plotted in red and overlaid onto the gray-scale OCT image.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(k)=|ER(k)+ES(k)|2=|ER(k)|2+|ES(k)|2+ER*(k)ES(k)+ER(k)ES*(k),
IOCT(k)=2rRrS(z1)S(k)Re[exp(i2kz1)],
I1{IOCT(k)}(z)=2rRrS(z1)I1{S(k)}(z^)|z^=z2z1,
G(τ)=E0*(t+τ)E0(t),
G(τ)=I0γ(τ)exp{i[ω0τα(τ)]},
I1{IOCT(k)}(z)=2rRrS(z1)I0γ[2(zz1)]·exp{i{2k0(zz1)α[2(zz1)]}},
I1{IOCT(k)}(z)=2rRI0j=1n{rS(zj)γ[2(zzj)]·exp{i[2k0(zzj)2α(zzj)]}}.
I1{IOCT(k)}(z)=2rRI0j=1nvj(z),
vj(z)=rS(zj)γ[2(zzj)]exp[i2k0(zzj)],

Metrics