Abstract

Measurement of nonlinear optical reflectivity of saturable absorber devices is discussed. A setup is described that enables absolute accuracy of reflectivity measurements better than 0.3%. A repeatability within 0.02% is shown for saturable absorbers with few-percent modulation depth. The setup incorporates an in situ knife-edge characterization of beam diameters, making absolute reflectivity estimations and determination of saturation fluences significantly more reliable. Additionally, several measures are discussed to substantially improve the reliability of the reflectivity measurements. At its core, the scheme exploits the limits of state-of-the-art digital lock-in technology but also greatly benefits from a fiber-based master-oscillator power-amplifier source, the use of an integrating sphere, and simultaneous comparison with a linear reflectivity standard.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).
  3. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Ranta, A. Härkönen, T. Leinonen, L. Orsila, J. Lyytikäinen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, Opt. Lett. 38, 2289 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Härkönen, J. Paajaste, S. Suomalainen, J.-P. Alanko, C. Grebing, R. Koskinen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, Opt. Lett. 35, 4090 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 331 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Opt. Express 16, 7571 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, Opt. Express 20, 5652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Härkönen, J. Paajaste, S. Suomalainen, J.-P. Alanko, C. Grebing, R. Koskinen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, Opt. Lett. 35, 4090 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Moenster, U. Griebner, W. Richter, and G. Steinmeyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

Alanko, J.-P.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baer, C. R. E.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bellancourt, A.-R.

Bilger, H. R.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D. K.

Cho, W. B.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

Choi, S. Y.

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, Opt. Express 20, 5652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

de Araújo, M. A.

de Lima, E.

de Oliveira, P. C.

Dekorsy, T.

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhaker, R.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garetz, B. A.

Golling, M.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grebing, C.

Griebner, U.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

M. Moenster, U. Griebner, W. Richter, and G. Steinmeyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guina, M.

Habib, T.

Haiml, M.

G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Härkönen, A.

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heckl, O. H.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hönninger, C.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iwaniuk, D.

Jung, I.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Opt. Express 16, 7571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Khosrofian, J. M.

Kim, K.

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, Opt. Express 20, 5652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koskinen, R.

Krainer, L.

G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krauß, N.

Lee, S.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

Leinonen, T.

Liverini, V.

G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lyytikäinen, J.

Maas, D. J.

Mangold, M.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marchese, S. V.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moenster, M.

M. Moenster, U. Griebner, W. Richter, and G. Steinmeyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

Moser, M.

Oh, K.

Orsila, L.

Paajaste, J.

Paschotta, R.

Pereira, D. P.

Petrov, V.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ranta, S.

Richter, W.

M. Moenster, U. Griebner, W. Richter, and G. Steinmeyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rotermund, F.

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, Opt. Express 20, 5652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

Rudin, B.

Saraceno, C. J.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schättiger, F.

Schmidt, A.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

Schön, S.

G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schriber, C.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Silva, R.

Song, Y.-W.

Spühler, G.

G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

S. Ranta, A. Härkönen, T. Leinonen, L. Orsila, J. Lyytikäinen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, Opt. Lett. 38, 2289 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

A. Härkönen, J. Paajaste, S. Suomalainen, J.-P. Alanko, C. Grebing, R. Koskinen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, Opt. Lett. 35, 4090 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Moenster, U. Griebner, W. Richter, and G. Steinmeyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Südmeyer, T.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Opt. Express 16, 7571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suomalainen, S.

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K.

G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, D.-I.

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, Opt. Express 20, 5652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

Yim, J. H.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1973 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Spühler, K. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 81, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Moenster, U. Griebner, W. Richter, and G. Steinmeyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 29 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured nonlinear reflectivity curves for a low ΔR SESAM and a dielectric mirror. Varying only the fiber amplifier gain, an approximately four-decade change of fluence was obtained. Symbols indicate three sets of measurements for each case. Red line, fit to Eq. (1). Confidence intervals derived from this fit are shown as color shades. Dashed lines indicate SESAM parameters.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured beam diameter at different focal positions using in situ knife-edge characterization with a cleaved SESAM edge. Inset: single knife-edge measurement at the beam waist.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

GaAs cleave in comparison to commercial steel blades (pristine condition, out-of-box). SEM micrographs have been cropped and contrast has been enhanced for clarity. (a) Single-use scalpel, (b) box cutter, (c) freshly cleaved GaAs wafer, and (d) retrieved position of knife edges in (a)-(c) versus lateral dimension after subtraction of linear fit. Traces have been offset from each other for clarity. Resulting rms deviations from the linear fit are indicated. The indicated 5 nm value for the GaAs cleave has possibly been compromised by image-field aberrations of the SEM. Removal of the apparent smile results in rms uncertainties of 1nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement setup. Source indicates input position of MOPA fiber laser. λ/2, waveplate for fixed preattenuation together with polarizer (Pol); BS, 50% beam splitter; Ref, linear reference mirror; Ch1 and Ch2, choppers operating at frequencies f1, f2, respectively; IS, integrating sphere; SESAM indicates SESAM position; PS, piezo stage; PM, power meter used for knife-edge characterization; f=8mm shows position of focusing lens.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Nonlinear reflectivity curve of a resonant SESAM [16] with large ΔR. Symbols: measured data. Blue curve: fit using Eq. (1). Red curve: fit with Eq. (3). Dashed lines indicate SESAM parameters Rns, Rlin, and Fsat determined from the latter fit.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R(F)=RnsFsatFln(1+[1ΔRRns][exp(FFsat)1])×exp(FF2).
P(x)=P02[1erf(2xx0w)],
R¯(F)=20exp(r2)R(exp(1r2)F)rdr,

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